AS Level Geography - Population + Migration

  • Created by: Dan 8888
  • Created on: 02-05-15 11:59

Population Basics

Key Terms:

Birth rate - No. of live births per 1000 people per year

Death rate - No. of deaths per 1000 people, per year

Fertility rate - Avg no. of children a woman will have between age of 15 - 44

Infant mortality rate - No. of children  who die before their 1st Birthday (per 1000)

Life expectancy - Avg age a person can expect to live

Migration rate - Difference between no. of people who migrate in and no. of people who migrate out per 100,000 of the population every year

Population density - No. of people per square kilometre (total pop. of an area / size of area)

Natural change - Change in population due to difference between birth and death rates

Zero growth rate - Population is neither increasing nor decreasing

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Population Basics Continued...

Stages of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

Stage 1 - High birth rate and high death rate:

 - Birth rate is high due to no birth control, no family planning, poor education and a high infant mortality rate

 - Death rate is high + life expectancy is low as there is poor health care, sanitation and diet

Stage 2 - High birth rate but death rate falls:

- Countries like Nepal and Afghanistan are in Stage 2

 - BR is still high due to little birth control or family planning and education is poor

 - DR falls + life expectancy increases due to improved health care, sanitation and diet

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Population Basics Continued...

Stages of Demographic Transition Model (DTM) Continued...

Stage 3 - Birth rate falls a lot and death rate falls slightly:

- Countries like Egypt are in Stage 3

 - BR decreases due to increased use of birth control and family planning and improvements in education

 - BR also drops as economy moves towards manufacturing (fewer children required) and more women want to work rather than staying at home to have children

 - Some countries introduce government population policies to try to reduce the birth rate

Stage 4 - Low birth rate and low death rate:

- Most developed countries are in Stage 4

 - Birth rate low due to access and demand for luxuries which means less money available for children + fewer advantages of having children

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Population Basics Continued...

Stages of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) Continued...

Stage 5 - Birth rate drops below death rate

- Some highly developed countries like Japan are in Stage 5

 - BR decreases because children are expensive to raise and many people have dependent elderly relatives

 - Death rate is still steady because there are more elderly people so more people die despite advances in health care

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Population Basics Continued...

Population Structure Varies from Place to Place and Over Time:

 - Population pyramids vary for different countries due to different demographic factors

 - Country's population structure alters through time as it moves through stages of DTM

 - Population pyramid shape can show which stage of the DTM a country is in

Migration can Change Population Structure:

1 - Internal migration - Rural -> Urban areas affects youth as they move to find jobs and can affect BR (reproductive age)

2 - Emigration away from countries at later DTM stages - Decreases population of country they have left e.g. elderly people

3 - Immigration into countries at later DTM stages - Increases population of people of working and reproductive age -> Increased BR

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Changes in the UK Population Since 1900

Population of UK has Changed During 20th Century

Family Size:

- Fell during early 20th Century, then increased towards mid-20th Century -> Women born during 1920s didn't have many children probably due to WW2 but many children were born after (baby boom after WW2)

 - Fell again during late 20th Century and it's expected to fall even more

Population Structure:

- Bulges at 60 years old and at 35-45 which shows high BR in 1940s and 1960s

 - Dips in population around 30 years and at 5-15 show a drop in BR in late 1970s and 1990s

 - Approximately 1/5 of population is made up of under 16s + 1/5 over 60s -> changed from a higher proportion of under 16s when larger generations were young - Life expectancy has also invreased from around 50 in 1900 to 77 (men) and 81 (women)

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Changes in UK Population Since 1900 Continued...

Migration and Ethnicity:

- Before WW2 many Germans (Jews) and Irish people migrated to UK - After imigrants came from the countries of the then Soviet Union like Ukraine

 - 1950s-70s immigrants came from British Empire countries (majority from India, Pakistan and the Caribbean)

 - Many people have come from central and eastern European countries like Poland since joining the EU in 2004

 - This has changed the ethnic mix of the UK because now we are a multicultural country


- Employment in primary and secondary sectors has declined over the past 100 years

 - Mechanisation means fewer jobs in agriculture

 - Improvements in education have caused a rise in tertiary sector jobs like banking

Social Status:

- Upper class, middle class and working class

 - Thought that social classes have been changing e.g. middle class growing (people in HE goes up)

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Changes in UK population since 1900 Continued...

Internal and External Factors Affecting Changes in Population:

Internal Factors:

- FAMILY SIZE - Suffragette movement gave women more freedom and legalisation of abortion in 1967 meant more women could choose not to have a child

 - POPULATION STRUCTURE - NHS in 1948 increased life expectancy

 - EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL STATUS - A-level and Uni take up causes changes in employment

 - MIGRATION - Loss of jobs caused by decline of the secondary sector has mostly affected the North which has caused internal economic migration of people to south-east

External Factors:

- FAMILY SIZE - Periods of global recession and global conflict

 - POPULATION STRUCTURE - Decreas in dangerous jobs increases the life expectancy

 - EMPLOYMENT - Loss of manufacturing to overseas leads to loss in jobs or change in jobs

 - MIGRATION - Open-door policies has increased immigration into the UK

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Impacts of an Ageing Population

Dependency Ratio

- Shows how much of the population is dependent -> Gives proportion of the population which has to be supported by working population (15-64)

Dependency Ratio = YOUNG PEOPLE (O-14) + OLD PEOPLE (65+) / WORKING AGE POPULATION (15-64)

- High dependency ratio means a greater proportion of dependent people

Social and Economic Impacts of an Ageing Population:


- Increased pressure on public services, unequal distribution of older people, reduced population growth or population decline, longer working life


- Reduced work force, increased taxes and spending (grey pound)

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Impacts of an Ageing Population Continued...

Case Study - UK has an Ageing Population

% of population who are over 65 is expected to increase because of ... - Increasing life expectancy, baby booms and falling birth rate

The Ageing UK Population does Cause Problems:

- Pressure on the pension system

 - More elderly people living in poverty

 - Pressure on the health service

Strategies Aiming to Manage the Ageing UK Population

- Age of retirement has been increased (65 for men and 60 for women)(effect below)

 - Encourage immigration of working-age people (increases size of working population)

 - Encouraging more women to have children

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Migration into Europe

Different Types of Migrant:

Economic Migrants - People who move abroad to find work or a better paid job

Asylum Seekers and Refugees - People who move because they are at risk

Voluntary Migrants - People who move because they want to

Involuntary Migrants - People who move because they are forced to

Illegal Immigrants - People who enter or stay in a country without permission

Lots of People Migrated into Europe from Former Colonies

- Immigrants from the former British Empire (British government invited them over to rebuild the damaged economy)

 - Immigrants from the former French Empire (Lots of economic migrants and others were fleeing persecution because colonies gained independence

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Migration into Europe Continued...

Many People Migrated into Europe from Other Countries too

- West Germany made up for its labour shortage in the 1960s by inviting workers over from Turkey

 - Asylum seekers created by the invasion of Iraq in 2003 (Sweden has accepted 40,000+)

 - Illegal immigrants enter Europe every year e.g. lots of Africans try to cross the strait of Gibraltar (2001 45,000 caught and refused entry to Spain alone) -> Many people die

Links between Europe and the Wider World

- Former colonies have political links, economic links and cultural links with the country which used to rule them

 - Countries are linked by ties between family and friends

 - Countries are linked by a share language

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Migration into Europe Continued...

Consequences of Migration into Europe

Demographic - Source countries will have a reduced proportion of people of working and reproductive age whereas destination countries will have an increased proportion - May increase BR in DC and decrease BR in SC

Economic - Money is sent back to families which means DC lose out

Social - Illegal immigrants don't have access to legal employment, healthcare or benefits and they may carry out dangerous work for little pay - e.g. Chinese drowned when picking cockles in Morecambe Bay in the UK

Cultural - Migrants bring their own culture -> Racial tension but also hybrid cultures e.g. Indina food in the UK

Political - Huge amounts of immigrants lead to changes in government policies - National political parties are becoming more popular e.g. British National Party (BNP)

Environmental - Travel via planes and ships causes pollution -> More CO2 emissions (GW)

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Intra-EU Migration

Poland and the UK

Push factors - High unemployment, low average wages, low availability of housing

Pull factors - Ease of migration, good exchange rate and plenty of jobs and better paid jobs

Consequences for both Poland and the UK

Demographic - Poland's pop. has reduced along with the BR but pop. of UK has increased

Social - Helped issues caused by UK's ageing population -> Young migrant workers pay taxes and these are used to support the older retired people

Political - Immigration policy has changed in UK

Economic - UK economy loses out whereas the Polish economy grows -> Labour shortage

Cultural - Polish products + more people attending Catholic church services in UK (Polish)

Environmental - More air traffic between Poland and UK -> More greenhouse gases (GW)

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Intra-EU Migration Continued...

Migration may not be Permanent though...

- 2008 lots of migrants moved back to Poland because there is less work available in the UK but more work is available in Poland but there is a less favourable exchange rate

Lots of people have Migrated from UK to Spain

- Lots of people migrate to Spain from the UK when they retire

Push factors - Cost of living is rising in the UK and the UK has a cool, wet and changeable climate

Pull factors - Cost of living is lower in Spain and Spain has a hot, dry and less changeable climate than the UK

UK and Spain have become more interlinked - Increase in budget air travel and improved communications

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Intra-EU Migration Continued...

Consequences for the UK and Spain

Demographic - Population of both UK and Spain has changed (Spain=greater proportion of older people whereas UK will have a reduced proportion of older people

Environmental - Many UK migrants don't live in Spain all year as they regularly return to the UK - Causes increasing air traffic which leads to more population

Social - More long-term medical care + not known whether the Spanish health system will be able to cope

Cultural - Communities with British-run shops and restaurants but some don't speak Spanish so they don't interact with the local community - Causes tensions between migrants + locals

Economic - Jobs created to provide for the needs of UK migrants and migrants spend their savings in Spain

Political - Local elections in Spain are affected by UK immigrants

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Rural-Urban Migration

Most Population Movement is Rural-Urban Migration

- More than 50% of the world's population live in urban areas and this is increasing

This is different in developed and developing countries:

 - Most of population in developed countries already live in urban areas due to rural-urban migration that has happened already

 - Less of population in developing countries currently live in urban areeas because most rural-urban migration that is happening in the world today is going on in developing countries

Factors Causing Rural-Urban MigrationDeveloping countries caused by 2 main factors - Foreign investment from TNCs is concentrated in urban areas because the population density is high + there is increased access to technologies as well as transport links

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Rural-Urban Migration Continued...

Factors Causing Rural-Urban Migration Continued...

Why people leave rural areas in developing countries - Inconsistent income and food supply, overpopulation and there is a low standard of living

Why people migrate to urban areas in developing countries - There are job opportunities, there are higher wages and there is a higher standard of living

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