AS IT Data, Information, knowledge and processing

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Data and information

Data = is raw facts and figures which hasn't been processed.

Example = 43884882, uii4774h4jj

From this we do not understand these numbers and letters and they could mean anything, in other words they have no context structure or meaning in this form.

Information = is data with context, structure and meaning

Credit Card Number - 43884882

Password - uii4774h4jj

from this we can surmise the context and meaning of these numbers therefore it is information.

[Information = Data + Context + Structure + meaning]

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Knowledge = the use and application of that information.

the application of this knowledge.


DATA = 2 and 4.

INFORMATION = 2 kilograms of ice cream sold in january, 4 kilograms of ice cream sold in july.

KNOWLEDGE = more ice cream is sold in july - the hotter the temperature the more ice cream is sold.

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Advantages of methods to represent information


  • clear to understand
  • lots of detail


  • multilingual - do not need language to understand an image.
  • can match your understand to what you see - physical shapes.


  • no fixed position
  • no line of sight required
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Disadvantages of methods to represent information


  • need to be able to read
  • need to understand the language
  • can be confusing - level of language


  • can be confusing if you do not know the symbols - does everyone know what road signs mean?
  • may not know
  • some symbols do not mean the same thing in different countries
  • need to be able to see


  • no good in large areas - distortion of sound
  • usually language based the sound - E.G. different alarms have different sounds
  • need to be able to hear.
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Semantic and Syntactic representations of informat

Semantic - this is the meaning of the sentence. the words and relationship of the words within the sentence give ameaning.

Syntax/Syntactics - the rules of the sentence each sentence or item of information has rules to follow - the rules make up the syntax

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Data Types And Their Uses

  • Boolean

boolean is a data type which can only consist of one of two values

0/1 male/female yes/no

  • Real

this data type contains numbers that have decimals.

45.76 234.456

its used to hold numbers where precision is important

  • Integer

the intefer data type contains whole numbers with no decimal places.

34 45 65446

it is used where accuray may not be vital importance or the value allocated is specifically a whole number.

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Data Types ..... Continued

  • Text/String

this is any alphanumeric character. it includes numbers, text and symbols

123456 qwerty !"£$%^&*()_{}:@<>?¬~#][';/.,

  • Date/Time

this contains numbers and letters, which, depending on the format used, display the date or the time to different degrees of accuracy

14:52:45 10/01/09

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Data Sources

Data is tricky and has to come from somewere there are two main places in which data comes from either primary data which is collected by the people who wish to use it, and secondary which is data which has been obtained and used by a third party usually bought information such as that over the internet.

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