AS History Richard III, Henry VII and Henry VIII

For AS exam 2011

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Richard III

Foreign Policy:


  • Relations poor when R3 became king
  • Auld Alliance between France + Scotland
  • James III of Scotland wanted peace with England (he had problems with his own nobility)
  • R3 didn't want peace but wasnt very strong so made 3 year truce in 1484
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Richard III


  • Relations poor when R3 became king
  • 100 yrs war is not forgotten
  • English kings claim to be kings of France
  • French Kings supported Lancastrians
  • France Sheltered Henry VII and gave military support


  • H7 spent childhood exile there
  • Duke Francis old and ill
  • R3 sent help to him against France
  • H7 expelled but went to France
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Situation at Edward IV Death

  • Edward V was a minor
  • Actions after Ed IV death increased tensions E.g Richard of Gloucester (Richard III) seized Ed

Rival Factions:

  • Woodvilles were strong
  • Clashed with Richard
  • Conflicting instructions left by Ed IV
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  • Feudal Dues
  • Customs Due
  • Acts of Attainder
  • Profits of Justice
  • Crown Lands
  • Benefitted from Ed IV's Acts of Resumption
  • Both Ed IV and R3 gave close personal attention to accounts
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Parliament:(only called once by R3)

  • Lords and Commons
  • Not Democratic
  • Reasons for parliament include; Confirmation as King, Acts of Attainder and to pass various laws)

Personal System of Government:

  • R3 signed/sealed lots of documents - Hard working Monarch

Created Council of the North


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Continuity of Personnel:

  • Only removed those who opposed him or supported the woodvilles

Continues much of what Ed IV did

Royal Council:

  • Chosen because of Wealth/Rank
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Who killed the princes in the tower?

In Favour of Richard III

  • Quote from mancini: 'Always aiming for the throne'
  • Henry VII's act of attainder against Richard III 'in shedding of infants blood'
  • Quote from Thomas More: 'order was given by Richard'
  • Murders had to have come from Royal Blood as the princes were inside the tower
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Who killed the Princes in the Tower?

Against Richard III:

  • Thomas More could not have been anti-Tudor at the time of his quote (had to say it was Richard)
  • Elizabeth Woodville would never have surrendered her daughters to Richards keeping later if he had murdered her sons
  • The rumours were the result of Tudor propoganda
  • He had the throne and the princes were declared illigitimate so there was no point in him killing them
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Wh0 killed the princes in the tower?

In Favour of Henry VII killing them:

  • Account by Thomas More: Tyrell confessed to killing the princes however this was never published by Henry VII
  • He forfieted all of Elizabeth Woodvilles possesions and had her sent to a nunnery (possibly she found out he had murdered them)
  • Murders had to come from Royal Blood
  • Issued two pardons on Tyrell
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Who killed the Princes in the Tower?

Against Henry VII killing the Princes:

  • Robert Ricart, 1483 : "the two sons of King Edward were put to silence in the Tower of London" Therefore must have been Richard III or Duke of Buckingham
  • He was in France during their disappearance
  • If Henry killed them it must have been done during his reign
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This is Dan the creator. Note: these are going to be continually updated over the next few weeks in time for the Summer 2011 AS exams

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