As history mr Scott

History Mr Scott

HideShow resource information

Lambert Simnel

  • Pretended to be Edward, Earl of Warwick
  • 24th May 1487 crowned 'Edward VI'
  • Henry made simnel a turnspit in kitchen as punishment
  • Dec 1487 Henry attainted and confiscated lands of 28 supporting nobles.
1 of 94

Perkin Warbeck

  • Claimed to be Richard of York
  • Supported by France - 100 yorkist supporters joined him in Paris in 1492
  • Maximillian recognised him as Richard IV
  • Margaret of Burgundy recognised him as her nephew
  • Sir William Stanley showed his support and was executed as a consequence
2 of 94

Cornish Rebellion

  • Because of 1497 subsidy and two fifteenths and tenths
  • Last time Henry attempted to raise a subsidy
  • Rebels defeated on 22 June at Blackheath
3 of 94

Privy council

  • Dealt with security issues, financial affairs and foreign affairs.
  • Being on privy council was a reward as it increased status.
  • Henry kept 21 councillors who had served Edward 4th and Richard 3rd because they had experience and it showed uniting of the 2 houses.
4 of 94

Act of 1487

  • Illegal to retain royal tennants, household officers or those living on crown demesne lands
  • Largely repeated act of 1468 but paid closer attention to interpretation of law: i.e. 'lawful service'.
5 of 94

Pro Camera Stella

  • Means 'in the room with the stars on the ceiling'.
  • Sub group of the privy council.
  • Set up in 1487 (new).
  • Responsible for laws relating to public order and administration of the law.
6 of 94

Justices of the peace

  • Primary organ of local government
  • Responsible for maintaining public order
  • Chosen from amongst local landowners
7 of 94

Council leared in the law

  • Sub group of Privy council
  • Set up in 1495 (new)
  • Designed to protect Kings position as feudal landlord.
  • 1504 - Richard Empson in charge
8 of 94

Order of the garter

  • Way of rewarding nobles
  • In Henry 7ths reign 36 joined the order
  • Required no outlay of land or money
9 of 94

Great council

  • Comprised of lords temporal and spiritual
  • On 2 occasions invited town representatives to attend, e.g. 1487, during Simnell rebellion.
  • Called when politially useful for king, E.g. 1492 when Henry gets paid to leave France, as he called a meeting he can claim nobles begged him to leave France.
10 of 94

Over mighty subjects

  • controlled who nobles could marry
  • required nobles to prove loyalty before they could have what was theirs.
  • E.g. Duke of Buckingham
  • Used Bonds and recognisances
11 of 94

Yeomen-of-the-guard

  • First permanent military grouping in country.
  • 200 men
  • Idea from King of France
  • Deliver messages, bodyguard, do errands.
12 of 94

Enclosure

  • Midlands region most affected
  • could lead to eviction of families
  • 1489 parliament passed a law against it
13 of 94

Auditors

  • Check accounts - make sure people aren't defrauding the King.
  • Adhoc auditors appointed as king (Edward 4th) found neccassary.
  • Henry 7th introduced general surveyors - an idea from duchy of lancaster.
14 of 94

Parliament

  • Only met to pass laws and grant taxes
  • comprised of house of lords and house of commons
  • only met 7 times under Henry
15 of 94

Trade act of 1485/6

  • Forbade English merchants from loading cargoes on Foreign ships unless no english ones were available.
  • Trade with Bordeux/Gascony was reserved for English ships.
  • At least half the crew must be English.
16 of 94

Crown lands

  • 1486 Act of resumption - reclaiming all land since 1455
  • Had Yorkist and Lancastrian lands
  • Start of reign - Duchy of Lancaster = £650/annum by end of reign was £6,500
17 of 94

Customs duties (tonnage and poundage)

  • 1485 ws largest share of kings income
  • Most common items were wool, leather, cloth and wine.
  • 1487 merchants doing coastal trade had to get a certificate.
18 of 94

Feudal dues

  • Money paid to king in lieu of military service (scutage)
  • Includes wardship - use of estates and profits from them, mariage and livery
  • 1487 feudal dues accounted for £350, by 1503, master of the kings wards had been appointed and profits rose to £6,000.
19 of 94

Profits of Justice

  • Henry was head of judicial system
  • Most criminal acts punished with fines - not executions
20 of 94

Parliamentary Grants

  • Reluctant to levy taxes - only did so when national interest was threatened
  • When King required more money multiples of the 15th and 10th could be levied
  • In 1489 Henry tried to raise £100,000. was unsuccessful only £27,000 collected.
21 of 94

Loans and benevolences

  • Henry could rely on loans from leading subjects
  • Benevolence= forced loan
  • 1491 Henry raised £48,500 this way for war against France
22 of 94

Clerical taxes

  • Church would often make contributions towards taxation
  • 1489 contributed £25,000 towards cost of war with France.
  • Simony - (selling positions)
23 of 94

Feudal obligations

  • Entitled to demand feudal aid on certain occasions
  • E.g. knighting of eldest son or marriage of eldest daughter
  • In 1504 this earned him £30,000 for knighting of prince Arthur and marriage of Margaret
24 of 94

French Pension

  • Part of treaty of etaples (1492)
  • Henry received pension of £5,000 a year
  • Total amount payable was £150,000
25 of 94

Bonds and recognisances

  • Bonds derived from privy council
  • recognisances derived from legal process
  • used to secure good conduct from officials
  • A way of keeping peace and ensuring loyalty
26 of 94

The exchequer

  • worked under system of assignment
  • couldn't build a reserve of cash
  • between 1460 & 1485 only 28% of revenues were ever handled directly by exchequer
  • Sometimes had to borrow money to meet short term expenses.
27 of 94

The Chamber

  • Adopted this due to ineffectiveness of exchequer
  • Mid 1940's became primary tool of financial management but Henry didn't use it straight away as didn't have experience.
  • Didn't make Bureaucracy of te exchequer
28 of 94

People looking after Henry 7ths money

  • Henry was own chief auditor
  • Sir Reginald Bray was Henrys chief financial advisor
  • 1488 Bray made lord treasurer
  • 5 months later lord Dinham took over
29 of 94

Assignment

  • Where money was scattered all over the country where it had been collected.
  • Problem = King never knew how much money he had
  • Between 1460 and 1485 only 28% of kings income was ever held centrally.
30 of 94

Days of peace

  • Wardens of the marches from each side came together to settle legal disputes.
  • At one ; Scot Sir Robert, warden of the middle march was killed by the English John, the *******, Heron.
31 of 94

The council of Wales and the marches

  • Henry revived council in 1493
  • Normally headed it with 7 year old son, Arthur.
  • In 1499-unofficial council of the marches was formed - headed by Henry's mother, Margaret Beaufort
32 of 94

Council of the North

  • Originally in hands of traditional Northern magnates such as Percys or Dacres.
  • Following murder of earl of Northumberland in 1489 Henry divided responsibility for council between Lord Dacre and Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey.
33 of 94

Poynings Law

  • 1494 Irish parliament met at Drogheda
  • Irish parliament could only be summoned and pass laws with Kings prior approval.
  • No further legislation discussed unless approved by kings and the council
  • Laws made in England automatically apply to Ireland
34 of 94

Treaty of Sable

  • Result of 1488 when Bretons defeated at battle of St. Aubin De Cormier
  • Agreed Anne would marry CHarles 8th
  • 3 weeks later Duke Francis died and Anne De Beaujeau claimed Anne of Brittany.
35 of 94

Treaty of Redon

  • February 1489
  • England and Brittany
  • Bretons agreed to pay the costs of 6,000 men that Henry agreed to send to them in June 1489
36 of 94

Treaty of Medina Del Campo

  • Spain promised not to help English rebels, a large dowry to help England recover Normandy and Aquitaine, to aid England should it be at war wit France.
  • England promised to aid Spain should it be at war with France, to help Spain recover Cerdagne and Rousillon.
  • 1489
37 of 94

Leauge of Cambrai

  • 1508
  • Ostensibly for crusade against turks but in reality an anti-spanish alliance
38 of 94

Treaty of Etaples

  • 3rd November 1492
  • Charles wanted to keep Brittany and get rid of Henry so terms were generous
  • Agreed to pay arrears of monies agreed to be paid to Edward 4th, to cover Henry 7ths costs and not to help English rebels
  • Agreed to pay 745,000 gold crowns at 50,000 gold crowns a year
39 of 94

Days of peace

  • Wardens of the marches from each side came together to settle legal disputes.
  • At one ; Scot Sir Robert, warden of the middle march was killed by the English John, the *******, Heron.
40 of 94

The council of Wales and the marches

  • Henry revived council in 1493
  • Normally headed it with 7 year old son, Arthur.
  • In 1499-unofficial council of the marches was formed - headed by Henry's mother, Margaret Beaufort
41 of 94

Treaty of Windsor

  • February 1506
  • Recognise Philip as king of Castille
  • Philip to marry Margaret of Savoy
  • Philip to hand over Edmund de la Pole
42 of 94

Council of the North

  • Originally in hands of traditional Northern magnates such as Percys or Dacres.
  • Following murder of earl of Northumberland in 1489 Henry divided responsibility for council between Lord Dacre and Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey.
43 of 94

Bequests

  • Form of money, property of land and represented gifts from peoples wills.
  • Form of church income
  • Usually made for prayers and masses to be said for the repose of deceased's soul = ease time in purgatory.
44 of 94

Church lands

  • Form of church income
  • church owned between 25-33% of land in England.
  • 'Glebe' land provided regular income for parish churches and monastries.
  • Land could be rented out or used for sheepgrazing
45 of 94

Poynings Law

  • 1494 Irish parliament met at Drogheda
  • Irish parliament could only be summoned and pass laws with Kings prior approval.
  • No further legislation discussed unless approved by kings and the council
  • Laws made in England automatically apply to Ireland
46 of 94

Treaty of Sable

  • Result of 1488 when Bretons defeated at battle of St. Aubin De Cormier
  • Agreed Anne would marry CHarles 8th
  • 3 weeks later Duke Francis died and Anne De Beaujeau claimed Anne of Brittany.
47 of 94

Tithe

  • Form of church income
  • A tenth of a man's wealth, usually given in rural areas in terms of a proportion of the harvest.
  • Some opposition but this a rare occurence.
  • Opposition to mortuary payments (a payment to make up for missed tithes)
48 of 94

Treaty of Redon

  • February 1489
  • England and Brittany
  • Bretons agreed to pay the costs of 6,000 men that Henry agreed to send to them in June 1489
49 of 94

Cess

  • A form of church income
  • Money required for a churchs structure
  • e.g. new steeple
  • An obligatory tax could be imposed by church wardens.
50 of 94

Treaty of Medina Del Campo

  • Spain promised not to help English rebels, a large dowry to help England recover Normandy and Aquitaine, to aid England should it be at war wit France.
  • England promised to aid Spain should it be at war with France, to help Spain recover Cerdagne and Rousillon.
  • 1489
51 of 94

Voluntary contributions

  • Form of church income
  • Contributions taken towards the paschal candle at easter.
  • Church also brew ales for sale on religious holidays such as saints' days.
52 of 94

Leauge of Cambrai

  • 1508
  • Ostensibly for crusade against turks but in reality an anti-spanish alliance
53 of 94

Humanism

  • Rejected idea of original sin, but believed humans had free will and culd choose to lead a virtious life.
  • Believed original texts should be studied and this belief lead to new interest in learning ancient Greek
  • Challenged ideas of transubstantiation
54 of 94

Treaty of Etaples

  • 3rd November 1492
  • Charles wanted to keep Brittany and get rid of Henry so terms were generous
  • Agreed to pay arrears of monies agreed to be paid to Edward 4th, to cover Henry 7ths costs and not to help English rebels
  • Agreed to pay 745,000 gold crowns at 50,000 gold crowns a year
55 of 94

Feudal obligations

  • Entitled to demand feudal aid on certain ccasions, e.g knighting of eldest son or marriage of eldest daughter.
  • In 1504 this earned him £30,000 for knighting of prince Arthur and marriage of Margaret. M
56 of 94

Treaty of Windsor

  • February 1506
  • Recognise Philip as king of Castille
  • Philip to marry Margaret of Savoy
  • Philip to hand over Edmund de la Pole
57 of 94

Privy Council

  • Dealt with security issues, financial affairs and foreign affairs.
  • Being on privy council was a reward as it increased status.
  • Henry 7th kept 21 councillors who served Edward 4th and Richard 3rd as they had experience and it illustrates uniting of the roses.
58 of 94

Bequests

  • Form of money, property of land and represented gifts from peoples wills.
  • Form of church income
  • Usually made for prayers and masses to be said for the repose of deceased's soul = ease time in purgatory.
59 of 94

Pro camera stella

  • sub group of privy council
  • means 'in the room with the stars on the ceiling'
  • set up in 1487 (new)
  • Responsible for laws relating to public order and administration of the law.
60 of 94

Church lands

  • Form of church income
  • church owned between 25-33% of land in England.
  • 'Glebe' land provided regular income for parish churches and monastries.
  • Land could be rented out or used for sheepgrazing
61 of 94

Council leared in the law

  • Sub group of privy council
  • Set up in 1495 (new)
  • Designed to protect kings position as feudal landlord.
  • 1504-Richard Empson in charge.
62 of 94

Tithe

  • Form of church income
  • A tenth of a man's wealth, usually given in rural areas in terms of a proportion of the harvest.
  • Some opposition but this a rare occurence.
  • Opposition to mortuary payments (a payment to make up for missed tithes)
63 of 94

Great council

  • Comprised of lords temporal and spiritual
  • On 2 occasions invited town representatives to attend, e.g. 1487, during simnell rebellion
  • Called when politically useful for king, e.g. 1492 when Henry gets paid to leave france, as he called a meeting he can claim nobles begged him to leave.
64 of 94

Cess

  • A form of church income
  • Money required for a churchs structure
  • e.g. new steeple
  • An obligatory tax could be imposed by church wardens.
65 of 94

Yeomen-of-the-guard

  • First permanent military grouping in country
  • 200 men
  • Idea from king of France
  • Deliver messages, bodyguard, do errands
66 of 94

Voluntary contributions

  • Form of church income
  • Contributions taken towards the paschal candle at easter.
  • Church also brew ales for sale on religious holidays such as saints' days.
67 of 94

Auditors

  • Check accounts - make sure people aren't defrauding the king
  • Adhoc auditors appointed as king (Edward 4th) found necassary
  • Henry 7th introduced general surveyors - an iea from Duchy of Lancaster
68 of 94

Humanism

  • Rejected idea of original sin, but believed humans had free will and culd choose to lead a virtious life.
  • Believed original texts should be studied and this belief lead to new interest in learning ancient Greek
  • Challenged ideas of transubstantiation
69 of 94

Hanseatic league

  • 1485 carried out ost trade
  • Federation of North german/baltic cities and towns such as Bremen and Danzig
70 of 94

Feudal obligations

  • Entitled to demand feudal aid on certain ccasions, e.g knighting of eldest son or marriage of eldest daughter.
  • In 1504 this earned him £30,000 for knighting of prince Arthur and marriage of Margaret. M
71 of 94

Trade act of 1489

  • English ships must be used if available, for english merchants to import.
  • Successful as led to retaliation by Hanse and Spain
  • Stopped foreign merchants buying wool until England had what it needed
72 of 94

Privy Council

  • Dealt with security issues, financial affairs and foreign affairs.
  • Being on privy council was a reward as it increased status.
  • Henry 7th kept 21 councillors who served Edward 4th and Richard 3rd as they had experience and it illustrates uniting of the roses.
73 of 94

Merchant adventurers

  • Exported most cloth
  • 1493 Henry banned cloth exports to Antwerp as way of putting pressure on Margaret of Burgundy.
  • Ordered merchant adventurers to move foreign operations to Calais
74 of 94

Pro camera stella

  • sub group of privy council
  • means 'in the room with the stars on the ceiling'
  • set up in 1487 (new)
  • Responsible for laws relating to public order and administration of the law.
75 of 94

Magnus Intercursus

  • Signed in 1496
  • Merchant adventurers allowed to sell cloth anywhere in Burgundy, except Flanders without having to pay customs duties.
76 of 94

Council leared in the law

  • Sub group of privy council
  • Set up in 1495 (new)
  • Designed to protect kings position as feudal landlord.
  • 1504-Richard Empson in charge.
77 of 94

Malus Intercursus

  • Trade between England and low countries to be free.
  • English merchants allowed to anchor or transfer goods between ships in Philip's harbours without paying any duty.
  • Philip's subjects to pay duties agreed in 1496 regardless of whether goods are landed or sold.
  • Philip not to restrict importation of English cloth, or place duties upon it.
  • 1506 Philip dies so in 1507 return to Magnus Intercursus.
78 of 94

Great council

  • Comprised of lords temporal and spiritual
  • On 2 occasions invited town representatives to attend, e.g. 1487, during simnell rebellion
  • Called when politically useful for king, e.g. 1492 when Henry gets paid to leave france, as he called a meeting he can claim nobles begged him to leave.
79 of 94

Treaty of Ayton

  • September 1497
  • Henry wuldn't sign it until Warbeck left Scotland.
  • Between England and Scotland.
80 of 94

Yeomen-of-the-guard

  • First permanent military grouping in country
  • 200 men
  • Idea from king of France
  • Deliver messages, bodyguard, do errands
81 of 94

Perpetual peace

  • Between England and Scotland
  • February 1502
  • Extended Ayton Peace
  • Arranged marriage of James 8th to Margaret
82 of 94

Auditors

  • Check accounts - make sure people aren't defrauding the king
  • Adhoc auditors appointed as king (Edward 4th) found necassary
  • Henry 7th introduced general surveyors - an iea from Duchy of Lancaster
83 of 94

Hanseatic league

  • 1485 carried out ost trade
  • Federation of North german/baltic cities and towns such as Bremen and Danzig
84 of 94

Trade act of 1489

  • English ships must be used if available, for english merchants to import.
  • Successful as led to retaliation by Hanse and Spain
  • Stopped foreign merchants buying wool until England had what it needed
85 of 94

Merchant adventurers

  • Exported most cloth
  • 1493 Henry banned cloth exports to Antwerp as way of putting pressure on Margaret of Burgundy.
  • Ordered merchant adventurers to move foreign operations to Calais
86 of 94

Magnus Intercursus

  • Signed in 1496
  • Merchant adventurers allowed to sell cloth anywhere in Burgundy, except Flanders without having to pay customs duties.
87 of 94

Malus Intercursus

  • Trade between England and low countries to be free.
  • English merchants allowed to anchor or transfer goods between ships in Philip's harbours without paying any duty.
  • Philip's subjects to pay duties agreed in 1496 regardless of whether goods are landed or sold.
  • Philip not to restrict importation of English cloth, or place duties upon it.
  • 1506 Philip dies so in 1507 return to Magnus Intercursus.
88 of 94

Treaty of Ayton

  • September 1497
  • Henry wuldn't sign it until Warbeck left Scotland.
  • Between England and Scotland.
89 of 94

Perpetual peace

  • Between England and Scotland
  • February 1502
  • Extended Ayton Peace
  • Arranged marriage of James 8th to Margaret
90 of 94

Lollardy

  • Lollards followers of John Wycliffe, oxford academic, who condemned clerical abuses.
  • Denied transubstantiation, called monks and priests "ravening wolves" and "fat cows" and called pope "a limb of lucifer"
  • During Henry 8ths reign 70 people tried for Heresy - 3 burned.
91 of 94

Complaints of church

  • Ambition, which lead to scramble for office and to pluralism
  • carnal and moral laxity
  • covetousness, which made the clergy greedy and uncharitable
  • Too great a concern for the affairs of the secular world
92 of 94

England and papacy

  • Henry 7th received endorsement of pope Innocent VIII
  • Dispensation for Henry 7th to marry Elizabeth of york
  • Henry 8th strong links in 1511 for example creation of holy league.
93 of 94

Monastries and nunneries

  • 1487 Henry petitioned pope for help in reforming religious orders
  • Pope gave archbishop Morton power to visit and reform all religious houses, including those free from royal interference.
  • Took community of Franciscan observants under his protection
  • Transferred 3 conventual houses to the observants.
94 of 94

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »