AS History - British

Lots of notes for the AS British History course. My History teacher made a check list of everything we would need to know, these are the revision notes for the topics on that checklist. 

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CRIMEAN WAR: Who was William Russel and how did hi

  • Russell was the first war correspondant in the Crimea
  • He reported for The Times, but the army and government didn't give him permission to be in the Crimea- they would have preferred him not to be
  • Exposed poor organisation & administration, as well as bad conditions
  • Was not present for the bad winter 1954-55, and left the Crimea in Dec 1955
  • He could not have witnessed all the events he reported, and because his sources are unknown, it is hard to tell how reliable his reports are
  • Known to exaggerate sometimes, and was also anti-turk and anti-french
  • Did much to sway public opinion against the war and for reform
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How did Roger Fentons photos form and change attit

  • Photographer- was employed by Thomas Agnew & Sons to take photographs of the war
  • Queen Victoria was a patron
  • Was instructed not to take any photos of horrific images
  • Equipment also limited him to only taking photographs of static scenes
  • Many photos were probably posed
  • He was in the Crimea from March to June 1855, at Balaclava
  • His photos were featured in exhibitions, and were used to offset the negative press the war received from The Times and William Russell
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Charge of the Light Brigade

  •  Lord Raglan ordered Lord Lucan (his cavalry commander) to stop the Russians from removing captured cannon from the Causeway heights that overlooked two valleys close to Balaclava
  •   Confusion between the two commanders (on unclear directions) of the written and verbal directions Captain Nolan gave meant that Lucan sent the Light Brigade up the wrong valley
  •  The Light Brigade were faced with shooting on either side
  •    600 British troops died
  •  This event was a failure but overall the Battle of Balaclava was a success
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Florence Nightingale

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Mary Seacole

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Poor organisation of the troops

  • Brit army struggles to keep troops with sufficient supplies
  • Balaclava so small only few ships could dock at a time
  • Road from harbour to camp almost impassable
  • Horses struggled with snow
  • Lack of shelter and transport
  • Lord Cardigan refused to let camp be moved closer to Balaclava- would be easier
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Cardwells army reforms

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BOER WAR: What did Winston Churchills reportage ab

  • worked for the Morning Post
  • when captured by the Boers Chuchill claimed to be a correspondent but when taken prisoner he defended like a serving junior officer
  • he escaped and continued to report
  • the papers were in favour of the conflict
  • reports lead to patriotic enthusiasm and support for the war
  • but some British supported the Boers, and some formed anti-war movements
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Impact on party politics

  • the war had a devastating effect on the Liberal party
  • group of senior figures supported the war
  • group of radicals opposed the war
  • Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman was in the middle
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