Henry in Exile.
Was in Exile for 14 years in Brittany under Duke Francis II.
1475 Edward IV wanted Henry to marry one of his daughters. Henry managed to escape into Sanctuary because he feared that he would be handed over to his death.
Richard III's usurpation meant Henry became a viable prospect to being king. Due to Richard locking princes in Tower. Henry agreed to marry Elizabeth of York (Edward IV's daughter.)
1483 Henry tries to sail to England but is wise and doesnt land at plymouth. On his return to Brittany he gains support from the disaffected Yorkists by promising to marry Elizabeth on Xmas day, 1483.
Whilst Francis was ill his advisors agreed to handing Henry over to Richard. John Morton tipped him off allowing him to escape to France. When Francis recovered he allowed his followers to escape also..around 300 people. Joined by the Earl of Oxford, Edward Poynings, John Morton and Richard Fox.
Henry at Bosworth.
It is said that Henry couldnt of Achieved this without his aid he recieved from France.
Michael Jones however has said that by April 1485 Henry had only recieved a quarter of the promised 40,000 livres and was forced to take out personal loans and pawn jewellry.
Sean Cunningham suggeste that by 1485 Henry had in fact been abandoned by the French. He said that te soldiers from France were not actual soldiers but Charles had let Henry recruit Mercenaries from Normandy.
Set sail in 1485 with 2000 men. Landed in Pembrokeshire on 7th August in Pembrokeshire by 12th August he had persuaded Rhyc Ap Thomas to join Henry. He reached Shrewsbury on 15th August he had about 5000 men.
Was counting on Support from his step father Lord Stanley but he had to be careful as Richard held one of his sons hostage.
22nd August both armies met at Market Bosworth Henry had about 6000 troops whilst Richard had 12000 and Stanley was waiting at the flank with 3000.
Richard was Slain.
Earl of Northumberland commanded Richards Reserves but chose not to intervene.
Henry Securing the Crown.
He had his reign dated from the 21st August so that everyone who opposed him could be attainted.
Henry was crowned on 30th October with a parliament meeting on 7th November to confirm his position. It never ecured his position fully though as there were still people alive with a better claim to the throne such as the Ear of Warwick.
Henry applied for a Papal Dispentation to maryr Elizabeth of York which he did do on the 18th January 1486.
Best claim to the throne was Richards nephew the Earl of Warwick who was in the tower. Richard had bequeathed his crown to another Nephew though, John del a Pole. Him and his faher Duke of Norfolk both swore loyalty to Henry and John was even invited to join Henry's council.
The Earl of Northumberland was in the tower till 1485 the Earl of Surrey till 1489.
Lovells and Staffords.
Small rebellion broke out during a royal progress to York from the Lovell and Staffords who were strong supporters of Richard. Lovell tried to capture Henry and was only saved because the Retinue of the Earl Of Northumberland.
Henry continued progress and the way in which he dealt with the rebels was good.
Henry and France part 1
Long History of Poor Relations with France. Henry wanted to shore up his claim the the French throne early in his reign and gain foreign recognition and with the defence of Brittany he also had an eye on trade.
He negotiated a one year truce with Charles.
Henry didnt want to start another war with France as it was expensive and becuase France is built up would probably last a long time. But he didnt want to lose brittany and have a whole hostile opposing shore line.
1491 Henry reasserted his claim to the French throne.
Chrimes says this wasnt necessarily an intention to conquer France but of forcing Chalres to negotiate or maybe Charles ould 'buy off' Henry.
Currin said Henry had broader ideas and maybe wanted to capture the lands England had lost before 1453.
1491 Henry collected a forced loan when the situation in Brittany seemed desperate also parliament Granted two subsidies.
Henry and France part 2
October 1492 Henry crossed the channel with 26,000 troops. Landing at Boulogne to which he laid siege. 9 days after Henry invaded Charles offered terms as he was more interested in Italian glory.
Treaty of Etaples was signed in November the terms were generous as Charles wanted to keep Brittany and get rid of Henry simply. He had to agree not to help English rebels such as Warbeck. Charles agreed to pay Henry 745,000 gold crowns at 50,000 crowns a year - about £5000 at the time or 5% of Henry's total income.
Although not a great success for Henry he still did manage to:
Secure the denial to help Warbeck.
An increase in income.
Cemented alliance with Spain.
Established presence internationally.
Henry and Spain part 1
Spain offered Henry his greatest diplomatic victory. Not military but it gave him legitimacy as King of England.
1488 Henry had suggested marriage between his eldest son Arthur and Catherine of Aragon when they were bot hold enough.
March 1489 Treaty of Medina Del Campo was signed. Shows there was a need to contain France.
Large Dowry, Not to help English Rebels, To help recover Normandy, To aid England against France.
To aid Spain against France, To help recover Cerdagne.
Both sides agreed not to seek seperate peaces with France.
Henry and Spain part 2
Spain kind of broke this because France recovered Cerdagne and Rousillion back to Spain. Aloowing Charles to pursue in Italy.
France's success there provided a spur in Anglo Spanish relations. A league was formed to keep France out of Italy England wasn't included.
Ferdinand wanted to keep Henry on his side so offered support against Warbeck.
October 1496 further agreement with Arthur's marriage was put forward. Henry joined the Holy league against France on condition that he didnt have to go to war with them.
14 Novemer Arthur and Catehrine married.
1502 Arthur died and Henry was already arranged to marry her and got permission from the pope in 1504.
Elizabeth died in 1503 leaving Henry looking for a new wife. At various times he considered Joanna Naples, Margaret of Savoy. Ferdinand was favourable to the first proposal but it was complicated when Queen Isabella died.
Henry and Spain part 3
Ferdinand and Henry were now both looking for new wives.
Joanne was heir to her mother Kingdom in Castille, which threatened to break up Spain. Joanna of Castille was persuaded by her Husband Phillip of Burgunday to take up her inheritance.
This meant that Burgunday and Spain now opposed Henry. Henry had trade links with Burgunday and wanted to make them stronger. He gave Phillip money to pursue his claims. Henry antagonised Spain by keeping Catherine's Dowry which was supposedly had to be given back if she didnt marry Henry.
1506 Philip seeks shelter in England. Henry lavishes him and trade agreements are made also a marriage between Margaret of Savoy (Phillips Sister) and Henry was made. Also Burgunday removing Edmund del a Pole from power.
1508 The League of Cambrai was formed to unite France, England and Spain but Louiss XII backs out at the last minute and Ferdinand joins which turns everyone against Venice leaving Henry out in the cold.
Henry and Scotland.
Richard agreed a 3 year truce with Scotland in 1484 but Henry knew that Scotland would probably break this and did so in 1486 when the captured back Dunbar. Henry did nothing as he was preoccupied.
James III wanted a new English wife so a further 3 year truce was made and negotiations between James and Henry took place. But in June 1488 James was killed in civil war. Former supporters of James were given sanctuary by Henry which in affect prompted the Scots to give support the yorkists. The new King James IV wasn't interested in an english wife and was re-establishing links with France (henry was about to go to war over Brittany)
Jan 1489 a rebellion against Hepburn (James IV regent) broke out Henry sent aid - munitions. He may have sent more but there were tax riots over brittany in the North that he had to put down.
While Hepburn was in France Henry manages to sign an agreement with Angus to attack anyone who opposed peace with England.
Jan 1492 Angus got a peace agreement with Hepburn for 9 years.
James gets older and wants military glory.
Henry and Scotland part 2
Whn Perkin Warbeck goes to Scotland in 1495 James arranges for him to marry his cousin Lady Katherine Gordon. Also agrees to invade england with Warbeck.
A tiny army of 1400 men attack England with no support from nobles as soon as they here of an approaching English army they flee. 1496 Great Council grants funds to attack Scotland. But the Cornish rebellion breaks out in the South because they feel they shouldnt have to pay for tax for a war not near them. Diverts Henry's troops. James tried to invade again in this rebellion but forced back over the borders by the Earl of Surrey.
1497 Treaty of Ayton ends Hostilities. Warbeck leaves Scotland before it is signed.
Warbeck is captured and executed in 1499. This makes the way for perpetualy peace in 1502. This extended the Ayton peace and arranged the marriage of Henry;s daughter Margaret to James in Aug 1503.
Treaty didnt end Franco- Scottish alliance. Also didnt end hostility but gave days of peace.