Birmingham- Time to Rebrand
- 1976 - national Exhibition Centre was opened on greenbelt land near Birmingham airport.
- Late 1980's - Development of the areas around Broad street, including the the Hyatt Regency hotel (1990). The international convention centre and symphony hall opend (1991). Extension and refurbishment of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre (1991)
- 1993 - Developent of the area, Brindley Place- large 7 hectors development costing £350 million. Now home to the sea life centre, Ikon gallery and Royal bank of scotland.
- 2002 - Millenium point opened- part of the east side development, which cost over £115 millio.Completion of phase 2 of the custard factory redevelopment.
- 2003 - Bullrign development at a cost of £530 million, creating 8,000 jobs and over 35 million visitors in year of opening (second biggest shopping centre). Redevelopment of Quayside tower,originally constructed in the 1960's.
- 2005 - Completion of £40 million redevelopment of Mathew Boulton college, teaching over 500 courses to 7,000 students.
Future - big plans for redevelopment of New Street station and continued investment in the Eastside area of the city.
Past - Birmingham was centred round the car industry of "Rover and Layland".
- The Toxteth riots in 1981, kicked off the start of a regeneration project
- There was need for regeneration as there was high levels of crime, little inevation and the services were of a poor quality and not very efficient.
- 1981 - Liverpool development coorporation was set up
- 1982 - Docks were decided to be improved and in 1983 the work started they were fully complete in 1988 and were opened by Prince Charles
- 1992 - First phase of Tate Liverpool, the seond phase started in 1998.
Other regeneration included:
- a new 19m cruise liner terminal which would regenrate their global links, also produce a constant income.
- Liverpool 1 shopping centre, the only shopping centre to have sales increase in 2008
- Total redevelopment of Albert dock area including museums and restaurants.
- New paradise street bus station costing £1 billion, started in 2004. It has created a link between Albert Docks and the city centre.
- Super lamb banana, are a symbol of capital of culture and bring tourists.
- La princesse in 2008 bringing in visitors as it was a global icon
- The echo arena
Top-Down - decisions made by authorities and agencies that are imposed on people and places.
Bottom-up - Listening to the locals opinion and devising their opinions to solve problems.
Partnership - Combining both top-down and bottom-up stratergies.
Leagcy - where a major project or event leaves a footprint of infastructure and how it will be used later on, after the event or project. e.g commonwelath stadium now used a Manchester City's stadium.
Flagship Developments - Large scale, high profile and high investment projects, such as new museums, art galleries theatres and sporting facilities. e.g Beetham Tower and Bridgewater Concert hall. They help to attract visitors, improve the imageand repuation of the area and attracts private tourism.
Farms Diversify - when supply or increase in demand for usage of land increase, so farmers change there land from traditional farm use, for use of the locals or visitors, e.g lesiure or holiday accommodation
Primary Fieldwork- Consists of actually collecting the information needed rather than getting it off the internet, e.g carrying out questionnaires, placecheck survey or enviromental quality survey.
Secondary research - the use of internet and other sources to find out more of a place, e.g using wiipedia, text books or personal opinion.
- design of new building is imprtant and often handled as a competition.
- You can use a new building to add to the appeal and identity of a place, this is called signature architecture.
Use of public art
- Murals can be used to create talking points
- Creates meeting places
- Add a different dimension or lookto an urban place
- A rise in the cappucino culture has had a major role in revitalising parts of the city that were previously in decline.
- In cities there are places associated with ethnic groups, e.g china town. This attracts tourism and investors
Rural Festivals e.g Glastonbury and Hay on Wye Festival
- Attracts tourists that wouldn't usually visit the area
- Local services benefit from the increased amount of visitors
- can encouage community cohesion
- sustained visitor numbers and reapeat visits bring economic benefit
- Creation of jobs
- Development of infastructure and sustaianble planning initiatives
- The cost of holding the event
- Risk of failure from weather
- Overcrowding of town
- Noise pollution
- Economic benefits not felt by locals but go elsewhere.
Blackpool - Time to Rebrand
Less than two decades ago blackpool used to attract as many as 17 million tourists a year, but know it struggles to attract more than 10 million
Blackpool was in need of development as the introduction of cheap package holidays redirected tourism to the hotter European countries like Spain
Fewer tourists means fewer jobs. Between 1994 and 2005 the number of registered businesses dropped by 6%, although the amountof businesses across the country rose by 15%. Unemployment now stands at 7% and wages have fallen. In 2002 the average Blackpudlian was paid 17% less than the average Briton and by 2006 the gap was 23%
Over the past years Blackpool has had much new investment:
- Blackpool tower and winter gardens went undermajor face lift and redeveloment costing £38.9 million.
- £78 million seafront defences
- £68 million on refurbishment of the whole of Blackpool
- Trams are being upgraded and are expected to be running by October
- A cycle scheme was set up to improve health and fitness
- Blackpool is also home to BAE systems, which made 322.4 billion in 2009 and made 100,000 jobs
Thetford Forest Park- Rural Recreation
The forest is used for man different recreational activities. Some of the activities are:
- Bike trials
- Giant mazes
- Fungal Forays
- Deer safaris
It had aslo been used numerous times as a place for concersts and many top bands have played there, like Plan B and radiohead.
This natural tourims bring both positive and egative effects.
- brings economic wealth
- Forest is in danger of being degraded ecologically and physically due to the high recreational use, this is likely to effect peoples enjoyement of the natural lanscape and could result in a drop in demand for nature based tourism