Activation Energy - The minimum energy the particle needs in order to react.
Alkane - A hydrocarbon with single bonds only and with a general formula of Cn H2n+2.
Catalyst - A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the reaction.
Heterogenous Catalyst - A catalyst with a different phase to the reactants
Carbon Neutral - A process in which as much carbon dioxide is taken in from the air as is given out.
Disproportionation - Describes a redox reaction in which the oxidation number of some atoms of a particular element increases and that of other atoms of the same element decreases.
Dynamic Equlibrium - A situation in which the composition of a reaction mixture does not change because both the forward and the backward reaction are occuring at the same rate.
Electrophile - Electron pair acceptor.
Elimination - A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is removed from a reactant.
Endothermic - Describes a reaction in which heat is taken in as the reactants change to the products, the temperature drops.
Enthalphy Change - A measure of heat energy given out or taken in when a chemical or physical change occurs at a constant pressure.
Equlibrium Mixture - The mixture of reactants and products formed when a reversible reaction is allowed to proceed in a closed container until no futher changes occur.
Exothermic - Describes a reaction in which heat is given out as the reactants change to products, the temperature rises.
Fingerprint Region - The area of an infared spectrum bellow 1500cm-1. It is caused by complex vibrations of the whole molecule, it is unique toeach molecule.
Isomer - Compounds with the same molecuar formula but a different structual formula.
Leaving Group - An atom or group of atoms that is ejected in an organic substitution reaction.
Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution - The distribution of energies of the molecules in a gas or liquid.
Mean Bond Enthalphy - The average value of bond dissociation enthalphy for a given typeof bond taken from a range of different compounds.
Nucleophile - An electron pair donor.
Oxidation - A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms looses electrons.
Oxidation State - The number of electrons lost or gained by an atom in a compound compared to that of an uncombined atom.
Oxidising agent - A reagent that oxidises another species, removes electrons from.
Reducing Agent - A reagent that reduces another species, adds electrons to.
Reduction - A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms gain electrons.
Specific Heat Capacity - The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1K.
Standard Molar Enthalpy Change Of Combustion - The amount of heat energy given out when 1 mole of a substance is completley burned in oxygen with all reactants and products in their standard state.
Standard Molar Enthalpy Change Of Formation - The heat change when 1mole of substance is formed from its elements with all reactants and products in their standard states.