The frequency of occurrence of plants in a sampled area, such as a quadrat
The level of energy required to enable a reaction to take place. Enzymes reduce the amount of energy required to allow a reaction to proceed
Immunity that is acquired by activation of immune system
The area on an enzyme molecule to which the substrate binds
Movement of substances across membranes against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of energy in the form of ATP. Active transport usually involves the use of transport proteins
Feature of a living organism that increases its chances of survival, for example thick fur on an animal that lives in a cold habitat
A nitrogen-containing organic base found in nucleic acids. It pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
Force of attraction between molecules of two difference substances
Describes tissue consisting of cells that store fat/lipid
An attractive force between substances of particles
A version of a gene
Speciation due to organisms of a species being separated by geographical barriers so that over time members of the two populations become so difference that they cannot interbreed and are considered to be two difference species
Small air sacs in the lungs
An organic compound that contains both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids are the monomers of protein molecules.
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch to maltrose
Part of a starch molecule, consisting of many thousands of glucose residues bonded together
In mitosis, the stage when the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindles
Describes a result/data point that does not appear to fit the pattern of the other results. It may be assumed to be anomalous if the experimenter has made an error or if the apparatus used is not suitable for the measurements being taken
Molecules produced by microorganisms that kill or limit the growth of other microorganisms
Protein molecules released by the immune system in response to an antigen, which are capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen.
A foreign molecule (which may be protein or glycoprotein) that can provoke an immune response. Organisms have antigens on their plasma (cell surface) membranes.
A macrophage that has ingested a pathogen and displays the pathogen’s antigens on its cell surface membrane.
The route taken by water between the cells or through the cell walls in a plant.
Hardening of the artery walls and loss of elasticity caused by atherosclerosis or by deposition of calcium.
Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies.
Also called selective breeding – the process of improving a variety of crop plant or domesticated animal by breeding from selected individuals with desired characteristics.
The production of genetically identical new organisms by a single ‘parent’ organism.
Alpha - helix
A protein structure - a right handed spiral held in place by hydrogen bonds between adjacent C=O and NH groups