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  • Created by: Sam
  • Created on: 25-04-13 11:10


Skill is : Fluent    

             Aesthetically pleasing

             Techincal Model




              Goal directed

Learned ability to bring about pre determined results with maximum certaininty often with minimum outlay of time energy or both

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Ability is : Innate characteristic that lays the foundation of skill

Inherited, underpins skill and efficient

Examples; hand eye co-ordiantion, explosive strength, power, agility, manual dexterity and stamina

Perceptual Ability: Ability to sense and interpret information

Psychomotor ability: Ability to assess a stimuli and respond with correct action.

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Information proccessing model

Welford and Whiting model

Whiting: display- receptor mechanism- perceptual mechanism- translator mechanism to effector mechanism to output to feedback

Welford model- display, sense organs, perceptual mechanism, effector mecahnism muscular system, response then intrinsic and extrinsic feedback.


Can't be used for open skills as need to be adjusted according to changes in the environment.







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Reaction movement and response time

Movement: time from start to completion of tasks

Reaction TIme: time from onset of stimulus to onset of response

Response time reaction+movement time

Factors affecting reaction time: Gender and age, stimulus intensity fitness and performance enhancing drug

Improve reaction time : Single channel hypothesis "bottleneck" brain can only process 1 stimulus at a time

Psychological refractory period: Before the 2nd stimulus recieved 1st one has to be proccessed once

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Closed loop control lower levels of performance feedback usd to control the movement

Cognitive: phase at the beginning trial error process occurs relies heavily on feedback ,

Associative: Compare their current level of top level player performance. Gain kinasthesis

Autonomous: Automatic motor programmes fully stored

Kinasthesis= feeling of the movement whether it 'feels' right.

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learning theories

Cognitive learning theory: learning based on solving problems using past experience and concentrating on the whole skill

Observational theory: Bandura- learn by copying behaviour of significant others


Attention- loud bright attractive

Retention: chunk info

Motor reproduction: Whether performer is capable (age strength etc)

Motivation: Rewards prasies "Well done"

Matching performance

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Transfer of training- same skills used in different sports

Recall schema

Initial conditions gather info from environment eg basketball player looks at their and teammates position on court

Response specification: Decide what to doeg best type of pass how far ball needs to go

Recognition schema:

Sensory consequences: Gathers sensory information to help adjust weighting and timing of pass.

Response outcome: when pass has been delivered

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operant conditioning

Operant conditioning shaping the environment to manipulate behaviour

S-R bond link between stimulus and response

strengthen S-R bond

positive reinforcement- adding pleasant stimulus

early success

mental rehersal

whole task

Weaken S-R bond

negative reinforcement- taking away praise when you get it wrong


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Play= Time Social benefits reduce stress on NHS, reduce crime, economy and integration





Sport= Serious/ competitive

            Prowess - outstanding or superior skill



            Time and space

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sport education recreation

Sport playing for school hockey match


Recreation- Extra Curricular

Outdoor adventurous activities (OAA)

Respect for natural environment

Awareness of safety - percieved risk only


Social skills

Self esteem

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Oppurtunities for participation model etc

Model Course 1902-04 Why- Discipline fitness for army + handling weapons How- Ranks groups run by Non Commision Organisation What- Weapon training, static excercises, military drill

Early Syllabus of Physical Training 1904/09/19 Why: discipline obedient enjoyment alertness

How- Group, table of excercise for teachers What - Swedish excercise danish rhythmitics dance

PT Syllabus 1933 Why- Theraputic mind+ body How- Group 5x20 min lessons newly built gymnasia, direct teaching style What- Atheletics gymnastics

moving and growing 1952/ planning the programme 1954 Why- cognitive social skill increase involvement how- individual interpretations, appartus, problem solving what- agility excercises How- agility excercises swimming apparatus

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Sport England

Sport England - improve facilities not build

Key objectives Grow, Sustain, Excel                                                             

Active schools

Active Communities

Active Sport

Activemark and Sports Mark

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Barriers to sport

Discrimination unfair treatment of a person racial group minority based on prejudice

Prejudice: Unfavourable opinion before meeting an individual often based on inadequate facts

Stereotype: Simplistic generalisation about a group

Racism: Set of beliiefs based on the assumption that races have distinct hereditary characteristics.

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Types of practise

Distributed: allowing rest intervals between practise sessions

Fixed practise repetiton of a drill

Massed practise training session with no rest intervals

Part practise: SKill is divided into sub routines in order to focus on specific cues during practise

Varied practise: Different drills and methods

WHole practise: Practised skills in entirety with sub routines intact USED when: highly organised discrete simple

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Stroke volume Amount of blood pumped out of left ventricle in each contraction Average resting stroke volume is 70ml

Stroke volume determined by:

Venous return- Volume of blood returning to the heart via the veins. Venous return increase Stroke volume increases

Elasticity of cardiac fibres The more fibres stretch greater contraction greater contraction greater stroke volume . STARLINGS LAW

CARDIAC OUTPUT: amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute stroke volumexheart rate

Bradycardia Decrease in resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute

Cardiovascular shift: heart rate slowly increases during excercising at steady level. Due to decrease in stroke volume and arteriol blood pressure

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Vascular shunt

Vascular shunt = the redistribution of cardiac output(blood flow)

Control of blood flow

Vasometer located in medulla of the brain. During excerice CO2 lactic acid detected by chemo receptors high blood pressure detected by baroreceptors

Vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels

Vasodilation: widening of blood vessels increase blood flow. During excerice arterioles vasodilation more blood to muscles.

Sphincters aid in blood distribution when contract blood flow restricted through capillaries

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Venous return

Mechanism for venous return Transport of blood to the right side of the heart via the veins

Skeletal muscle pump- muscles contract and relax change shape causing pumping effect to squeeze blood to the veins.

Respiratory pump- muscles contract and relax pressure changes in thoracic and abdominal cavities

Valves in veins- stop backflow

Smooth muscle- squeeze blood back to the heart

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Transportation of blood around the body

Pulmonary Circulation- deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart.

Systematic circualtion carries oxygenated blood to the body from the heart and returns deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart.

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Good Key points, nice and breif.

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