AS AQA Geography- Health: Contrasting Health Care Approaches

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  • Created by: Ruth ****
  • Created on: 08-05-13 20:27

Emergent Health Care

  • Health care viewed as personal consumption
  • Physician operates as a solo entrepreneur
  • Private ownership of facilities
  • Direct payment to physician 
  • States role in healthcare is minimal

This occurs in Bangladesh, South Africa, India and many other countries.

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Pluralistic

  • Healthcare viewed at a consumer product
  • Physician operates as a solo entreprenuer 
  • Private and public ownership of facilities
  • States role in healthcare is minimal and indirect

Takes place in the USA, however the government has provided medicaid for the poor and medicare for the poor elderly. Most people have insurance to pay for treatment, however it is estimated that 44 million inhabitants are without insurance. 

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Insurance/ Social Security

  • Health care is insured and guaranteed consumer product
  • Physicians operate as a solo entreprenuers and as members of professional associaions, which are strong.
  • Private and public ownership of facilities
  • payment of services are mostly indirect
  • states role in health care is evident but indirect.

Example countries include France, Japan and Spain, and the WHO judged Frances health care system as the most effective in the world. There are 3 doctors for every 1000 citizens, but this system is expensive (10% of GDP) and costs are rapidly increasing as the elderly become more prevelant. 

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National Health Service (NHS)

  • Health-care is a state supported public service
  • Physicians are state employed
  • Physicians operate as solo entreprenuers and as members of professional associations which are strong.
  • Facilities are publicly owned
  • States role in health care is central direct.

The aim is to (espec. for Canada) provide equal health care to anyone who needs it, regardless of their income. Makes sure indigenous and rural settlers have good access and availability to health care.

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Socialised

  • Health-care is a state- provided public service
  • Physicians are state emplyed
  • Professional associations are weak or non-existent
  • Facilities are publicly owned
  • Payment for serivces is indirect
  • States role in health care is total

This occurs in China and Cuba, and Cuba has the second largest life expectancy , and there are 21 medical schools providing free training.

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