AS Bio: Cells- Eurkaryotic Cells

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  • Largest organelle, that contains genetic information.
  • It is enclosed in an nuclear double membrane and envolope covered in pores, that determine when enters and exits the nucleus. It is also vital in protein synthesis.
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Mitochondria "POWER PLANT"

  • Is site of areobic respiration, found in large amounts in active cells.
  • They have an outer membrane covering the outide of the mitochondrian. There is also has an folded inner membrane that creates the structure of cristae.
  • Mitochondria contains a fluid called matrix which contains enzymes that break down glucose into ATP.
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Golgi Apparatus "MAIL ROOM"

Is a collection of flattened membrane bound sacs that have vesicles attached. It packages proteins for secretion, secrete carbohydrates,produce glycoproteins, form lysosomes and transport/store lipids.

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Endoplasmic Recticulum (ER) " THE FACTORY"

Is membrane bound sacs that are attached to the nuclear envolope and/or the golgi apparatus.

There are two types:

Rough ER (rER) - which has a network of ribosomes lining it. It is also involoves in protein synthesis as a transport system.

Smooth ER (sER) - does not have as many ribosomes and is involved in the synthesis and transport of lipids.

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  • Are very small organelles that are present in large numbers (80s)
  • They are <span style="color: #505050;">involved in protein synthesis.</span>
  • They are found free in the cytoplasm or on the outer surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 
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  • Spherical membrane bound vesicles that contain digestive enzymes.
  • They digest material from the enviroment and any useful chemical are absorbed into cytoplasm and waste is rejected via exocytosis.
  • It also digests worn out orangelles.
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Chloroplasts, Cell Wall and Vacuole

Found in plants and algae and occasionally fungi.

Chloroplast contains chlorophyll and its the site of photosynthesis.
Cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds a cell providing protection and maintains cell shape.
Cell Vacuole is a membrane bound organelle that can store nutrients that the cell may need to survive.

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Specialised Cells

Tissue- cells in an organism that have same/similar structure and function, like muscle tissue
Organ-a part of an organism which has a specific and vital function, like the stomach.
Organ System- a group of organs that work together to carry out a particular task, like the digestive system.

Examples of specialised cells:

Red Blood Cells: contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to cells. They have thin outer membrane to allow oxygen to diffuse through easily. Large surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed.

Sperm cell: fertilises an egg cell. The head contains genetic information and enzymes to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is full of mitochondria for energy the the tail moves the sperm to the egg.

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