Aristotle

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The 4 causes

Aristotle was an ancient greek philosopher and the student of Plato. His ideas influenced much of western philsophers such as the likes of Thomas Aquinas.He believed the Universe has something that started everything of and explains the 4 causes through empirical observation of the natural world.

  • Material cause- What is it made of
  • Formal- Gives it form of structure
  • Efficient- Cause of existence
  • Final- Why it is how it is
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The Prime Mover

The Prime Mover

  • Everything exists in a state of motion
  • Earth, planets change.
  • Change is caused
  • Objects are in a state of actuality and potentiality

The PM is eternal because of potentiality and actuality

The PM is pure actuality by nature because it must exist and can not change.

The PM is the ultimate goal of movement-God.

The Prime Mover is the ultimate being and the final cause. PM is also impersonal.

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Criticsms

God is immanent, the PM is transcendent so the relationship is unclear

There is too casual a relationship between the Prime Mover and the universe

There does not have to be a final cause

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