Arguments + Reasoning

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  • Created by: fredbryce
  • Created on: 18-09-16 13:40

structure

A priori knowledge -> knowledge that is gained from logical reasoning without or prior to experience

A posterior knowledge -> knowledge that is gained after experience

Analytic statement -> A statement true by definition or logic

Synthetic -> A statement in which its truth or falsity depends on evidence that has been collected

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key terms + definitions

A priori -> a deductive, analytical method of proving something is logical

A posteriori -> relating reasonong with observations/experience to find a probable conclusion

Sythetic -> have truth or falsity decided by eperience

Analytic -> truth by virtue that words or concepts that are known to be correct - true by definition

Inductive -> flexible conclusion drawn from universal experience

Deductive -> an argument where no alternative conlcusion can be found

Premise -> a previous statement from which a conclusion is formed

Conclusion -> a judgement reached through studying premises

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Greek influences

Plato:

  • theory of forms
  • knowledge is inherited
  • learning is development
  • ideas are hidden in the soul

Aristotle:

  • Forms are intrinsic to objects
  • first to develop a formalised system for reasoning
  • he rejected plato's theory of forms
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