Argument Elements

These cards help you to know what elements you use in arguments, the structure of an argument and how to identify elements.

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  • Created by: Sonal
  • Created on: 30-12-12 18:47

An Argument is...

An argument is a main conclusion supported by at least one reason

Other argument elements:

- Examples (people) 

- Evidence (percentages/surverys etc.) 

- Intermediate conclusion

- Hypothetical reasoning

- Counter conclusion/ assertion

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A conclusion is a statement that the author wishes the reader to accept based on the reasoning given

Some words that can be used to identify a conclusion is:

- Should

- Must

- Therefore (You can use the 'therefore' test to see if a sentence is a conclusion, just see if the sentence makes sense when putting therefore before it)

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A reason is a statement that aims to persuade the reader to accept the conclusion

Word that you can use to identify reasons are:

- Since

- As

- Because

Reasons should always directly link in some way to the conclusion

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Evidence are factual statements or data that are used to develop or support a reason

Words you can use to identify evidence are:

- Supported by

- Proven by

- The fact that

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An example is a specific instance which is used to illustrate/ support a claim/ reason

Word you can use to identify an example is:

- For example

- For instance

- A case thats shows this

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Hypothetical Reasoning

Hypothetical reasoning is an 'if...then...' type of statement which looks at the consequence that might occur if something were the case

Words you can use to identify hypothetical reasoning is:

- If

- Then

- Consequence

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Counter Assertion

Counter assertion is a claim/ reason given in an argument that would support an opponents argument (normally to then discredit it)

Words you can use to identify counter assertions are:

- However

- But

- On the other hand

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Counter Argument

A counter argument is where an argument is given that would support the opponents argument with counter-reason(s) and a counter conclusion

Words that you can use to identify counter arguments are:

- However

- But

- On the other hand

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