Area of Study 2:Techniques of Melodic Composition

overview of AoS2

HideShow resource information

Baroque 1600-1750

Melody Techniques:

  • Doubling-- Quavers to semiquavers
  • Decoration-- i.e. Trills, mordents, Grace-note
  • Countermelodies-- Second Tune
  • Augmentation-- Double the note length
  • Modulation-- Changing the key
  • Changing the metre-- 2/4 to 3/4
  • Re-harmonisation-- New choice of chords
  • Add an accompaniment
  • Passing notes
  • Stepped dynamics-- Loud or quiet (limited gradual change)
  • Sequence-- Same melody played at a higher or lower pitch
1 of 13

Baroque 1600-1750

Instruments:

  • Harpsichord
  • Continuo (Keyboard & Bass stringed instrument)
  • Organ
  • Strings (Violin, Viola, Cello)
  • Brass (Trumpets)
  • Woodwind (Flutes, Recorders, Oboes)
  • Orchestra (Small mainly strings and harpsichord)
  • Choir (Soprano, alto, tenor, bass, treble(boys), male countertenor)
2 of 13

Baroque 1600-1750

Who? Where?:

England: Henry Purcell, G.F. Handel

Germany: J.S.Bach, G.F.Handel

Italy: Antonio Vivaldi

France: J.P. Rameau, F.Couperin, J.B. Lully

3 of 13

Blues

Melody Techniques:

  • Call and Response (antiphonal)- one person (group) calls then the others respond/answer
  • Swung rhythms- laid back feel, less rigid
  • Syncopation- off beat rhythms
  • Flattened notes/blues scale- expressive pitch blending 3rd/5th/7th notes flattened

Instruments:

  • Saxophone
  • Trumpet
  • Harmonica
  • Piano
  • Guitar
  • Double bass
  • Clarinet
4 of 13

Blues

Who?:

  • Bessie Smith
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Robert Johnson
  • Jelly Roll Morton
  • Muddy Waters
5 of 13

Classical 1750-1820

Instruments:

  • Piano- replaced harpsichord, was not part of the orchestra
  • Clarinet- was invented
  • French horn- was developed
  • Orchestra- mainly strings, no keyboard instrument, more woodwind and brass than baroque
  • Voices- soloists became more accomplished and music became more "virtuosic"
  • Violins- replaced viols as they were louder

Who?:

  • W.A Mozart
  • L.v Beethoven
  • Joseph Haydn
  • Johann Schobert
6 of 13

Serialism

Melody:

  • The basis of the composition is the note row
  • This can be played in several orders
    • Prime order-original order
    • Retrograde-backwards
    • Inversion-mirror image
    • Retrograde Inversion-backwards mirror image
  • End melody is often extremely disjunct

Harmony:

  • Totally atonal
  • Harmony normally occurs by accident
7 of 13

Plain chant

Melody:

  • scalic
  • any intervals are followed by scalic movement in the oposite direction of the leap.
  • often based on a mode (e.g. Dorian, Mixolydian)

Harmony:

  • unacompanied thorefore no harmony
  • the most important note is called the final

Instrumentation:

  • no instuments appart from voice
  • sung in unison
8 of 13

Plain chant

Texture:

  • monophonic

Where could it be played?:

You would expect to hear this music played in Church, or another religious venue such as a Monastery, Convent or Cathedral. It is religious and the lyrics are often sung in Latin.

9 of 13

British Folk

Melody:

  • Often based on modes
  • Sometimes pentatonic
  • Simple and repetitive
  • Narrow range of notes
  • Scalic

Rhythm:

  • often starts with an anacrusis
  • follows pattern of text
  • there are often ostinatos

Harmony: often based on primary triads



10 of 13

British Folk

Instrumentation:

portable instruments such as Penny Whistle, Accordion and Fiddle

Texture:

  • Tune and accompaniment
  • possibly heterophonic
  • sometimes unaccompanied

Where could it be heard?:

You would expect to hear this music played live in pubs, and also in Folk Festivals

11 of 13

Indian Classical

Melody:

  • Based on a rag
  • Rag forms the basis for improvisation
  • Involves microtones

Rhythm:

  • Based on a tal

Harmony:

  • Doesn't use western harmonies. Melody is supported by a drone.
12 of 13

Indian Classical

Form:

  • Alap- Notes of the rag introduced, just sitar, slow and unmetred.
  • Jhor- Structured inprovised section with metre. Medium centre.
  • Jhala- Music gets faster and more rhythmic.
  • Gat/Bandish- Set composition that uses notes of the rag, percussionist comes in.

Instrumentation:

  • Sitar
  • Tabla
  • Tanpura

Where would you hear it?:

You would hear this music in classical concerts in India or at world music festivals.

13 of 13

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Music resources:

See all Music resources »See all resources »