The Monuments at Risk Survey of England (MARS)
- This was done in 1998
- It was undertaken by Bournemouth University and The Royal Comission on the Historic Monuments of England (RCHME)
- It was a survey of the condition of a 5% random sample of Englands known and recorded archaeological sites.
- It provided a census of the nature distribution and state of Englands archaeological resources.
- The examined records from archives including RAF aerial photographs from the 1940's and compared them to recent information.
- The key measureswere the loss of horizontal area and the loss of height.
- It found that 95% of monuments had suffered some damage.
- Since 1945, 23500 monuments hace been completly destroyed.
- 2% of recorded sites have been lost since the survey.
- It has probably missed many buried sites and therefore the destruction may be much higher.
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Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 197
- Developers have to fill out a scheduled monument consent before any changes can be made to a scheduled site.
- This is then sent to the Secretary of State of the Department of Culture, Media and Sport who has up to three months to make a decision as to if the changes can be made.
- It is overseen by the English Heritagewho have the task to record, asses and moniter monuments. They can also recomend other sites to be scheduled.
- There are over 25,000 scheduled sites but this is only about 2% of all known sites in the country.
- It doesn't include the protection of landscapes.
- Sites discovered during development may not be included.
- Plowing is still allowed to happen on site if it was previously but it is not allowed to be any deeper than currently used.
- It is easy to claim ignorance so get out of it.
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Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and Sites of S
- These are primarily to conserve landscapes and habitats however due to the protection given to these it may also conserve and protect archaeological remains.
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Town and Country Planning Act 1971
- This allowed local authorities to take archaeology into account when considering planning applications.
- Local councils are required to produce structure plans for furutre developments.
- It did not guarentee that archaeology would be preserved or recorded.
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Planning and Policy Guide number 16 (PPG16)
- This is not a law but a guide
- It advises planners to consider archaeology at an early satge in the development process and favour the preservation of archaeological remains.
- It encourages in situ preservation.
- It advises that the developer is responsible for funding archaeological work.
- But very few developments are rejected on archaeological grounds.
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UNESCO and World Heritage Sites
- There is a list of over 850 outstanding international value.
- Enables funds to be channeled to conservation and restouration on endangered sites in poorer countries.
- The majority of sites are in Europe.
- Sites have to have a management plan which engages all of the partied involved.
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Valetta Convention 1992
- The European Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage.
- It requires governments to protect monuments and regulate archaeology to ensure proper conservation of sites.
- It covers the use of metal detectors, the trade in artefacts and the need to raise public awareness.
- There are fears that it could limit the use of amateurs in archaeology.
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Treasure Act of 1996
- What is treasure?:1.Any metal object which is more than 300 years old and is made of at least 10% precious metal, 2.Any object that is made of any amount of precious metal and is prehistoric, 3.Collections of coins greater in number than 10.
- If it is determined as treasure then it has to be reported to a coroner within 14 days.
- E.g. Staffordshire Hoard.
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Portable Antiquities Scheme
- Introduced in 1997
- A voluntary code of practice
- Objects are reported to the Finds Liasion Officer
- Any object can be reported
- By 2007, over 300,000 objects had been reported.
- Provides a link between the public, metal decterorists, archaeologists and museums.
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UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally exporte
- Introduced in 2008
- Requires the return of stolen or illegally excavated objects.
- Helps check the provinance of imported objects.
- The UK has not yet signed this.
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