AQA core chemistry cards

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  • Created by: Ells
  • Created on: 23-02-13 19:01

Metals

·         Transition metals are metals, good conductors of heat and electricity, can be hammered or bent into shape easily

·         Iron is extracted from an iron ore in a huge blast furnace.

·         Reactions when oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions

·         Aluminium and titanium have low density, resist corrosion, alloys are very useful, they are strong, and are very useful. Also it is too reactive to reduce using carbon. 

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Bonding

 

·         Ionic bonding= metal and non-metal react

·         Covalent bonding= when two non-metals bond 

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Combustion

·         Smelt or roast the metal ore, and then use electrolysis to make it pure

·         Thermal decomposition= breaking down a chemical by heating

·         Combustion burning fuels in plenty of oxygen = CO2 + H2O

·         Incomplete combustion burning without enough oxygen = CO+ H2O

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Alkanes and Alkenes

·         A.S.S= Alkanes, saturated hydrocarbons, single bonds

·         E.U.D= Alkenes, unsaturated hydrocarbons, double bonds

·         Bromine water: saturated= orange-brown, unsaturated = clear

·         Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules

·         Fractions containing large hydrocarbons are heated to vaporise them and then passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam

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Unsaturated and saturated fats

·         Unsaturated fats are good for us. Keeps arteries clear and reduces heart disease.

·         Saturated fats are bad for us. Increase risk of heart of dieses and increase cholesterol.

·         Unsaturated vegetable oils can be ‘hardened’ by reacting with hydrogen in hydrogenation using a 60o nickel catalyst.

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Hydrophobic and Hydrophillic

·         Hydrophilic ‘head’ dissolves the water.

·         Hydrophobic ‘tail’ dissolves in the oil. 

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Bio fuels

·         Bio fuels are renewable and release less carbon dioxide into the air. More people are needed to produce bio fuels and bio diesel already contains sulphur. They are also not carbon neutral

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The earth

·         Motion is caused by convection currents in the mantle due to radioactive decay

·         Upper part of the mantle is broken into large pieces called tectonic plates.

·         Radiation in the mantle causes Convection currents which move the plates

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Atmosphere

·         The modern atmosphere has 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen

·         The early atmosphere was formed by gases given out from volcanoes, and plants

·         Gases in the air can be separated by fractional distillation for use in industry

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Atmosphere

·         The modern atmosphere has 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen

·         The early atmosphere was formed by gases given out from volcanoes, and plants

·         Gases in the air can be separated by fractional distillation for use in industry

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