AQA Physical geography case studies

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ICE ON THE LAND

  • Devension Ice sheet- at its peak 18 000 years ago 
  • covered around 30% of the land
  • Corrie- Blea Water a corrie in the Lake district with a tarn
  • Arete- Striding Edge an arete in the lake district uk
  • Pyramidal peak- The matterhorn a pyramidal peak in the Alps
  • Glacier- Mer de Glace in the Arve Valley, France
  •      Bosson Glacier in the Arve Valley, France
  • U shapd valley- Arve Valley, France
  • Recessional moraine- below the Drus near Chamonix
  • Drumlins-north west england
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AVALANCHE

KASHMIR 2008

Kashmir is in the himalaayan foot hills.

In February 2008, 30 people were killed and many homes were distroyed by an avalanche.

The avalanche was cased by unusually heavy snowfall


Avalanche protection scheme at Taconnaz, Arve valley

underneath the Taconnaz glacier where the hanging valley meets the main valley

trees and mounds to break up avalanche and hollows catch snow,walls to stop momentum of avalanche,

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USING UPLAND GLACIATED ARIAS

CHAMONIX!

Chamonix is in the north west part of the alps in the Arve Valley.

There are lots of activites to do i.e skiing and snowboarding in winter and walking and climbing in the summer. Chamonix promotes activites all year round to keep tourists coming all year.

the Pros of tourismm: money,jobs and taxes that go towards local infistructure and healthcare

the cons of tourism: conjestion, noise, rubbish, prices rise and locals cannot afford higher prices,and footpaths are eroded.

difficult to buld on the hillside so people live in the flat valley bottom- Arve valley

Infistructure difficult - lotts of tunnels 

Lotts Of hydroelectric power-Emmerson dam switerland on the french swis border about 56% of switerland's energy comes from hydroelectric, and all of switzerland's trains

difficult to farm because of steep slopes


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THE COSTAL ZONE

Mass movement

Rock fall- Beachy Head 

  • south west of East Bourne ( angus thongs and perfect songging) sussex 
  • (famous suicide spot)
  • January 1991
  • cold winter meaning lots of freeze thaw action
  • debris reached out 192m nearly joining the lighthous to the beach

Rotational slump -Hallbeck Hall

  • Scarbourogh,Yorkshire
  • 3-5th june 1993
  • ditroyed a 4* hotel
  • glacial till a soft material anyway became sludgey because of heavy (144mm) of rainfall
  • flowed 200m out
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THE COSTAL ZONE

  • Headland and bay- Swannage bay made of alternting bands of chalk and clay
  • Arch-Durdle Door Dorset
  • Stack - Old Harry's Rock swanage bay
  • Stump Old Harry's wife- swanage bay
  • Wave cut platform - chalk cliffs near Beachy Head
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Spits And Salt marshes

Spit: Hurst castle spit

  • on the hampshire coast 
  • 3km lond and 100km wide

Salt marsh: keathaven marshes

  • behind hurst castle spit
  • pioneer plants such as cordgrass grow here
  • retreating by 6m a year
  • braching is another problem- breached in 1989 because of a storm
  • rock armour and beach nourisment to prevent breaches put in in 1996 and the spit has not been brached since
  • another problem is tourists walking all over the marsh 
  • Site of special scientific interest
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HARD ENGINEERING

Hard engineering- Mappleton

  • Mappleton is on the holderness coast
  • defenses put in further down the coast at Hornsea increased the rate of erosion as LSD was interupted
  • stone groines were put in place south of Mappleton in 1990

Local/regional - the stone groynes helped slow the rate of erosion round mappleton but the problem shifted further down the coast south of mappleton rate of erosion increased to 20m/year

also had an affect on arias such as king's lynn as less material was being moved to protect further down

International-some of the material that is now being trapped at mappleton used to go towards protecting low lying countries such as The Netherlands, but it no longer does.

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MANAGED RETREAT

Wallasea Island

  • A low lying island formed where the River Crouch and River Roach merge in Essex
  • The Old costal defenses were falling into direpair
  • instad of repaining the old defenses they built new defenses further back.
  • July 2006 the old sea wall was breached in 3 places allowing 115hectaires of land to flood
  • This aloud salt marshes, salt water lakes and islands to form, which are natural sea defenses
  • in 2007 the RSPB took over management of Wallasea Island
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SEA LEVEL RISE

East Anglia

  • If sea levels rise settlements such as King's Lynn and valuble agricultural land will be threatened
  • Norfolk Broads, a popular tourist deination would be flooded, effecting many wildlife habitiats and the economy of the aria
  • rate of erosion would increase and settlements such as overstrand would be in trouble
  • people are worred that the storm surge that happened in 1953 killing 300 people could happen again
  • the Thames barrier that protects £80 billion of property would have to be rebuilt as it would not be able to withstand the new levels of water
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THE RESTLESS EARTH

(http://www.enchantedlearning.com/egifs/Earthsplates.GIF)

  • Constructive palte boundry- San Andreas fault california
  • Conservative plate boundry- between Nazca and pacific plate 
  • Fold mountains-the Alps
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THE RESTLESS EARTH

Island arc

  • (SiMa SiMa distructive boundry)
  • The west indies
  • over time islands merge to form new continental crust ie Japan

Basic volcano- Hawaiian islands volcanoes fromed over a hotspot

Rift Valley- African rift valley- volcanic acivity such as mt. Kenya

Acid Volcano- Mt. St Helens                             Mount Pinatubo 

  • washington state      Phillipines
  • 18th May 1980          June 15th 19991
  • landsides took out trees                              125 000km2 of ash
  • comercial farming affected                           200 000 people in evacuation camps
  • increase in tourism                                      800 000 livestock killed
  • 57 people died   global temperatures droped by 0.5 degrees
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SUPERVOLCANO

Yellowstone National Park

  • Wyoming USA
  • Over a hotspot that has left a trail of ancient caldeeras
  • cycle of 600-700 thousand years
  • last eruption was 640 000 years ago
  •  2003 Norris gyser baison had a spat of tectonic activity increasing the temerature of the water to boiling point and other gasses were let out- 5 byson were killed
  • 1999 yellowstone lake had a 700m bulge

If yellowstone erupted today...

  • clouds of ash 40-50km above earth ground all airrafts for months
  • 2500km2 of debris
  • ZONE 1 pyroclastic zone 100km around volcano 90% mortality rate
  • high exposure to flurine gas( flurosis) and poison water supply
  • Ash means no farming as all crops die so worldwide starvation
  • Global temperatures drop by 12 degrees
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earthquakes

Haiti LEDC

  • Haiti is in the north carabbean, sharing an island with the dominican republic
  • On the 12th january 2010 an earthquake, 7 on the richter scale hit haiti
  • The north american plates and carabbean plates were involved
  • the epicentre was 15 miles from the capital port au prince
  • the soft rock around this aria multipled the force and liquifaction occured
  • 300 000 killed and 1.8 million homeless
  • port damaged making it very difficult to get aid in
  • haiti receved lots of aid

Kobe- Japan MEDC

  • 17th January 1995 - 7.2 on the richter scale
  • phillipenes and eurasian plate
  • 6434 people dies 300 000 homeless
  • 75% of the port perminently damaged- lost alot of buisness
  • fire, and no water for 10 days
  • hanshin expressway distroyed but rebuilt within a a year
  • no aid was given to the kobe earthquake 
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TSUNAMI

Boxing day Tsunami

  • 26th December 2004
  • Indian ocean floor epicentre 
  • ricter scale 9.2
  • sea bed rose 12m
  • stunami waves spread in all directions at 500mph
  • 14 countries affected
  • 12 million homeless
  • £7.5 billion pledged in aid
  • a tsunami warning system was set up in 2006
  • fishing trade badly affected
  • lots of boats were distroyed so there were lots of new jobs created building new boats especially plastic catarmarans
  • change in the depth of the seabed so navigation maps will have to be changed, but this means a decrease in piracy
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