Clefs are symbols which tell you how high or low to play notes
Pitch: notes higher up the stave have a higher pitch. Notes lower on the
stave have a lower pitch
Double Bar: you get a double barline at the end of a poiece or section
Triplets: The 3 and the curved line show the notes are Triplets
Tones and semi tones are the gaps between the notes
The treble clef is the most common cleft
The treble clef is used for higher pitched melody instruments e.g flute, oboe, clarinet, coilin, trumpets and horns
The Bass clef is used for low pitched instruments
The bass clef is used for lower pitched instruments like the tuba, trombone, bassoon, cello and double bass.
The vocal tenor clef is for tenor voices anbd lead guitars
It is the same as the treble clef but it has a tiny 8 underneath which means that the notes are played one octave lower
Time signatures show how many beats are in a bar.
There is always a time signature at the start of every piece. It's written using two numbers.
The top number tells you how many beats there are in each bar
The bottom number tells you how long each beat is.
when two or more rhythms are played at the same time the music is polyrhythmic.
Time signatures can be split up into different patterns of beats.
Cross rhythms are when two or more rhythms that dont fit together are played at thesame time
Semi breves are 4 beat notes
Minims are 2 beat notes
Crotchets are 1 beat notes
Quavers are 1/2 beats
Semiquavers are 1/4 beats
DOTS ,TIES AND TRIPLETS
A dot after a not or rest makes it longer
A dot just to the right of a note or rest makes it half as long again
A second dot adds on another quater of the original note length
A tie joins two notes together
A ties is a curved line joining two notes of the same pitch together, it turns them into one note
A triplet is three notes all the same length squeezed into the time of two
largo: broad and slow Accelerando: speeding up
Larghetto: still broad, not so slow Rallentando: slowing down
Adagio: bit faster then largo Ritendo: holding back the pace
Andante: walking pace Allargando:slowing down getting broader
Moderato: moderate speed Rubato:flexible with the pace of music
Allegro:quick and lively A tempo: back to the original pace
Vivace: very lively and quick
Presto: really fast
Overall feel of the piece
Agitato: Agitated pesante: heavy
Alla marcia: in march style risoluto: strong, confident, bold
Amoroso: loving Trionfale: trianfant
Dolce: soft and sweet
pp: pianissimo : very quiet
p : piano : quiet
mp: mezzopiano :fairly quiet
mf: mezzoforte: fairly loud
f : forte: loud
ff: forissimo:very loud
cresendo: getting louder
Diminuendo: getting quieter
Accents, Glissando and Bends
An accent is a type of articulation that tells you to emphasise a note
A Glissando is a slide from one note to another.
A bend changes the pitch of the note slightly