Adaptations in Animals
- Animals in cold climates, like the Arctic, have thick fur and fat skin (blubber) to conserve heat.
- Some animals in the Arctic, like a Arctic fox or Arctic hare, are white in the winder and brown in the summer. This allows them to be camouflaged so they are not so easily seen.
- Bigger animals have smaller surface area compared to their volume, this means that they can conserve heat more easily but it is also more difficult to lose heat. For example an elephant is a big animal living in hot places but because of its big ears and wrinkled skin it means that it has a large surface area and can therefore lose heat easily.
- In dry conditions, like deserts, animals are adapted to conserve water and stop them getting too hot. Animals in the desert many hunt or feed at night so they remain cool during the day.
- Animals don't just adapt the way they look they way they act is also an adaptaion.
Remeber: the bigger the animal they smaller its surface area to volume ratio.
Adaption in Plants
- Plants compete for light, water and nutrients.
- In dry conditions, e.g desert, plants become very well adapted to conserve water, like cacti. Plants conserve water by having extensive roots, waxy leaves, small leaves and water storage in stems.
- Plants are eaten by animals, some plants have developed thorns, poisonous chemicals and warning colours to put of animas.
Competition in Animals
- Animals compete with each other for water, food, space, mates and breeding sites.
- An animals territory will large enough to find water, food and have some space for breeding.
- Predators compete with their prey, as they want to eat them.
- Predators and prey may be camouflaged, so that they are less easy to see.
- Prey animals compete with each other to escape from predators and to find food for themselves.
- Some animals e.g caterpillars, may be poisonous and have warning colours so that they may not be eaten.
The most successful animals, the ones that survive, pass on their genes - natural selection.
There are many ways animals are adapted:
- Colour - attrack females or as camouflage.
- Speed - to catch food or escape from pedators.
Competition in Plants
- All plants compete for water nutrients and light, for example in a woodland some smaller plants, like snowdrops, flower before the trees are in leaf, so that they can get light, water and nurtients.
- Some plants spread their seeds over a wide area so that they don't compete with themselves.
Plants have adapted so that they might grow faster than other plants so that they get all the water nutrients and light they need, or some other plants may flower while other plants are dormen, eg the snowdrop.