AQA Chemistry Unit 1 - Industrial Processes

As my good old science teacher says..."There's going to be at least three of these processes on your exam paper". And so... here are some useful cards which should help you remember these key ideas. :)

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Thermal Decomposition

Thermal Decomposition

 

FUEL -> FUEL OXIDE + CARBON DIOXIDE

CALCIUM CARBONATE -> CALCIUM OXIDE + CARBON DIOXIDE

 

Requires high temperature 

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Traditional Distillation

Traditional Distillation

The process of separating different substances because of different boiling points

USED IN CRUDE OIL. LONG AND SHORT HYDROCARBONS. 

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Simple_distillation_apparatus.svg/225px-Simple_distillation_apparatus.svg.png)

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Cracking

Cracking

Cracking is breaking long hydrocarbons to make them shorter.

This means for excessively produced fractions in the distillation process more fuels like petrol can be produced. 

 

REQUIRES HIGH TEMP AND A CATALYST

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Polymerisation

Polymerisation

 

A Monomer is a single alkene molecule. 

A polymer, is a long chained Alkane. Which is made up of lots of Alkene.

WRITE A POLYMER LIKE... poly(ethene). << STAYS WRITTEN AS AN ALKENE. 

 

Need for polymerisation: PRESSURE/HEAT AND A CATALYST. 

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Electroplating/Electrolysis

Electroplating

 

Used from Metal extraction above the reactivity of carbon, which is normally used for reduction reactions. 

 

EXPENSIVE, USES ELECTRIC (Mostly produced by Fossil Fuels)<. 

(http://image.wistatutor.com/content/electricity/electroplating-of-silver.jpeg)

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Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation

This is the process where the hydrogen is added to an unsaturated fat to make it saturated (no double bonds)

SOOO...SAY WE HAD....

UNSATURATED FAT + HYDROGEN -> SATURATED FAT

 

NEED 60degrees and a nickel catalyst. All these catalysts eh?!

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Combustion - Incomplete

Combustion - I-C

 

Incomplete combustion is where there isn't enough oxygen to allow the reaction to occur properly. This leads to production of some gases we don't want!

LIKE:

Carbon Monoxide 

CARBON PARTICULATES 

 

If we wanted to incinerate waste, incomplete combustion can be a problem!

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Combustion - Complete

Combustion - C

This basically produced: 

 

FUEL + OXYGEN = WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE

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Redox

Redox

This is a reduction/oxidation reaction.

Reduction is used in industrial process to purify metals.

IRON OXIDE + CARBON = IRON + CARBON DIOXIDE

^ THE CARBON HAS REACTED WITH THE OXYGEN TO "STEAL" IT AWAY FROM THE LESS REACTIVE IRON.

 

Reduction reactions can only be used in industry where the metal oxide is lower in the reactivity series

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Comments

nush

GREAT STUFF!

THANKS :)

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