AQA Chemistry Organic Compounds

Just some key things about organic compounds and how to tell them apart!

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Alkanes/ Branched Alkanes

Alkanes

  • Prefix or Suffix: -ane
  • Example: Propane (CH3CH2CH3)
  • Functional Group: n/a

Branched Alkanes

  • Prefix or Suffix: Alkyl (-yl) -ane
  • Example: Methylpropane CH3CH(CH3)CH3
  • Functional Group: n/a
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Alkenes/Alcohols

Alkenes

  • Prefix or Suffix: -ene
  • Example: Propene (CH3CH=CH2)
  • Functional Group: C=C

Alcohols

  • Prefix or Suffix: -ol
  • Example: Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)
  • Functional Group: -OH
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Aldehydes/Ketones

Aldehydes

  • Prefix or Suffix: -al
  • Example: Ethanal (CH3CHO)
  • Functional Group: -CH=O

Ketones

  • Prefix or Suffix: -one
  • Example: Propanone (CH3COCH3)
  • Functional Group: -C(=O)-
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Esters/Carboxylic Acids

Esters

  • Prefix or Suffix: alkyl (-yl) -oate
  • Example: Propyl Ethanoate (CH3COOHCH2CH2CH3)
  • Functional Group: -C(=O)-O-

Carboxylic Acids

  • Prefix or Suffix: -oic Acid
  • Example: Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH)
  • Functional Group: -C(=O)-OH
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Cycloalkanes/Arenes

Cycloalkanes

  • Prefix or Suffix: Cyclo-_____ -ane
  • Example: Cyclohexane (C6H12)
  • Functional Group: n/a

Arenes

  • Prefix or Suffix: Phenyl- or -benzene
  • Example: Ethylbenzene (C6H5C2H5)
  • Functional Group: Benzene Ring
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Amines/Acyl Chlorides

Amines

  • Prefix or Suffix: -amine (primary), di-____-amine (secondary), tri-____-amine (tertiary)
  • Examples: Primary: Methylamine (CH3NH2), Secondary: Dimethylamine ((CH3)2NH), Tertiary: Trimethylamine (N(CH3)3)
  • Functional Group: Primary: -NH2, Secondary: -N(H)-, Tertiary: -N(-)-

Acyl Chlorides

  • Prefix or Suffix: -oyl Chloride
  • Example: Ethanoyl Chloride (CH3COCl)
  • Functional Group: -C(=O)-Cl
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