AQA Chemistry GCSE - C1a

All key points to remember for unit 1a (only c1a 1 and 2) for Chemistry GCSE.

Quick revision cards, little detail.

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Atoms, Elements and Compounds

  • All substances are made of atoms
  • Elements are substances made of only one type of atom
  • Symbols are used for atoms to show what happens in chemical reactions
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Limestone and its uses

  • Limestone is used as a building material and to make quicklime, cement and glass
  • Thermal decomposition of limestone makes quicklime and carbon dioxide
  • The formula of a substance shows the number of atoms of each element that have joined together.
  • Thermal deomposition means 'breaking down using heat'
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Decomposing Carbonates

  • Carbonates of metals decompose when heated to produce the metal oxide and carbon dioxide
  • We can represent chemical reactions by balanced equations
  • In a chemical reactions the mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products
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Quicklime and Slaked lime

  • Adding water to quicklime produces slaked lime
  • Lime water is used as a test for carbon dioxide
  • Mortar can be made by mixing slaked lime, sand and water
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Cement, concrete and glass

  • Cement is made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay
  • Concrete is made by mixing cement with sand, stones or crushed rock and water
  • Glass can be made from limestone, sand and sodium carbonate
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Extracting Metals

  • An ore contains enough metal to make it worth extracting the metal
  • The method we use to extract a metal depends on its reactivity
  • Many metals can be extracted from their oxides using carbon
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Extracting Iron

  • Iron ore contains iron oxide
  • Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace using coke
  • The iron that is produced is hard and brittle because it contains impurities
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Properties of iron and steels

  • Pure iron is a soft metal that bends easily
  • Steels are alloys of iron
  • There are many different steels that have properties suitable for particular uses
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Alloys in everyday use

  • A pure metal is alloyed by mixing it with other metals or elements
  • Alloying changes the properties of a pure metal so that it is more useful
  • Smart alloys have special properties such as returning to their original shape
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Transition Metals

  • Transition metals have many similar properties that make them very useful
  • Copper is a very good conductor of heat and electricity that does not corrode easily
  • Extracting copper by traditional methods is expensive and affects the environment
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Aluminium and Titanium

  • Aluminuim and titanium have low densities compard with many other metals
  • They also resist corrosion, and titanium is strong at high temperatures
  • Extracting these metals is expensive because it involves electrolysis and high temperatures
  • Recycling saves resources and the energy needed to extract the metal from its ore
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