AQA C1 2.1 Limestone, Carbonates, Decomposition, cement & Matals.

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Thermal decomposition carbonates cement concrete

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  • Created on: 23-11-11 10:10

AQA 2.1 Limestone

Rock mainly contains calcium Carbonate. (CaCo3)

Cement ---> Powdered Limestone + (roast )Powdered Clay  

Concrete ---> Cement + Water + Crushed Rock

Reinforced Concrete ---> Cement + water + Crushed Rock + Steel rods

Mortar ---> Cement + Sand + Water

Thermal decompostition

CaCo3 (s) --->  CaO(s) + CO2 (s)

               (HEAT)  ( CaO QUICKLIME)

IN a rotary Kilm

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AQA 2.2 Metal Carbonates

Test for CO2-->  bubble through limewater Ca(OH)2 if it turns milky CO2 is present

1) Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Co2 (g)  ---> CaCo3 (s) (turns milky)+ H2O (l)

2) Acis + carbonate ---> salt + C02 + water (word equation for below)

CaCo3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ---> CaCl2 (aq) + Co2 +  H20 (l)


The MORE REACTIVE the metal, the more stable the carbonate therefore the HARDER it is to decompose.

Ma2CO3 does NOT compose

CaCo3 - Does so at high temp 0---> Oxide3 + Co2

CuCo2 - readily decomposes ---> Oxide + Co2

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AQA 2.3 Limestone reaction cycle

Calcium Hydroxide used by farmers to neutralize acis soil (Ca(OH)2 is alkali)

CaCo3 (s) ----> (heat)  CaO (quicklime) ---> (water) Ca(OH)2 (s)(Slaked lime exothermic reaction) ---> (water fliter) Ca(OH)4 (aq) ---> (+Co2)  Caco3 (s) Then it starts again!

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AQA 3.1 Extracting Metals

More reactive the element more stable the ore so harder to extract metal.

Elements below carbon in the reactivity seris are extracted by reduction

Aq/Au are found in there native state  and are extracted by mining or panning.


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AQA 3.2 Iron & steels

Extraction of iron (blast furnace ... reduction)

Fe2O3 (s) + 3Co (g) ---> 2Fe (l) + 3Co2 (g)   Reducting agent is CARBON MONOXIDE

Makes cast iron  (4% carbon)


Carbon steels 0.03-1.5% carbo. Cheapest. Knives cars building work ect

Low alloy steels 1-5% trace metals

High alloy High % of trace metal therefor expensive

Stainless steel chromium - nickel steels

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AQA 3.3 Aluminium + Titanium

Strong low density do not corrode

Aluminium - extracted by electroylis Impure Al2O3 is purified thenmatled (high temp) Lots of electricity therfore very expensive.

Properties - light, good conductor, can be hammered, dosen't corrode as protected by a oxide layer.

Titanium - Ore is reacted with more reactive metal (Na) ( Nb: Ore - Tioxide- converted to tichoride then react TiCl4 with sodium)

Properties -Srong resistant to corrosion (protective oxide layer)  Used for aircrafts, jet engines, neclear reactors, hip joints.

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AQA 3.4 Copper

Copper is extracted from coper rich ore

method 1) add sulfuric acis to make copper sulfate - then extract copper

Method 2) SMELTING strangly hat ore in a blast furnace. Below

Malachite (CuCO3) is heated (CuCo3 (s)--- Cuo (s) + Co2 (g)) Then add H2SO4 to CuO (CuO + H2So4 ---> CuSo4 + H2O) then add iron to DISPLACE the copper (CUSo4 + Fe ---> FeSo4 + Cu)

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