AQA 2.1 Limestone
Rock mainly contains calcium Carbonate. (CaCo3)
Cement ---> Powdered Limestone + (roast )Powdered Clay
Concrete ---> Cement + Water + Crushed Rock
Reinforced Concrete ---> Cement + water + Crushed Rock + Steel rods
Mortar ---> Cement + Sand + Water
CaCo3 (s) ---> CaO(s) + CO2 (s)
(HEAT) ( CaO QUICKLIME)
IN a rotary Kilm
AQA 2.2 Metal Carbonates
Test for CO2--> bubble through limewater Ca(OH)2 if it turns milky CO2 is present
1) Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Co2 (g) ---> CaCo3 (s) (turns milky)+ H2O (l)
2) Acis + carbonate ---> salt + C02 + water (word equation for below)
CaCo3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ---> CaCl2 (aq) + Co2 + H20 (l)
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF METAL CARBONATES
The MORE REACTIVE the metal, the more stable the carbonate therefore the HARDER it is to decompose.
Ma2CO3 does NOT compose
CaCo3 - Does so at high temp 0---> Oxide3 + Co2
CuCo2 - readily decomposes ---> Oxide + Co2
AQA 2.3 Limestone reaction cycle
Calcium Hydroxide used by farmers to neutralize acis soil (Ca(OH)2 is alkali)
CaCo3 (s) ----> (heat) CaO (quicklime) ---> (water) Ca(OH)2 (s)(Slaked lime exothermic reaction) ---> (water fliter) Ca(OH)4 (aq) ---> (+Co2) Caco3 (s) Then it starts again!
AQA 3.1 Extracting Metals
More reactive the element more stable the ore so harder to extract metal.
Elements below carbon in the reactivity seris are extracted by reduction
Aq/Au are found in there native state and are extracted by mining or panning.
AQA 3.2 Iron & steels
Extraction of iron (blast furnace ... reduction)
Fe2O3 (s) + 3Co (g) ---> 2Fe (l) + 3Co2 (g) Reducting agent is CARBON MONOXIDE
Makes cast iron (4% carbon)
Carbon steels 0.03-1.5% carbo. Cheapest. Knives cars building work ect
Low alloy steels 1-5% trace metals
High alloy High % of trace metal therefor expensive
Stainless steel chromium - nickel steels
AQA 3.3 Aluminium + Titanium
Strong low density do not corrode
Aluminium - extracted by electroylis Impure Al2O3 is purified thenmatled (high temp) Lots of electricity therfore very expensive.
Properties - light, good conductor, can be hammered, dosen't corrode as protected by a oxide layer.
Titanium - Ore is reacted with more reactive metal (Na) ( Nb: Ore - Tioxide- converted to tichoride then react TiCl4 with sodium)
Properties -Srong resistant to corrosion (protective oxide layer) Used for aircrafts, jet engines, neclear reactors, hip joints.
AQA 3.4 Copper
Copper is extracted from coper rich ore
method 1) add sulfuric acis to make copper sulfate - then extract copper
Method 2) SMELTING strangly hat ore in a blast furnace. Below
Malachite (CuCO3) is heated (CuCo3 (s)--- Cuo (s) + Co2 (g)) Then add H2SO4 to CuO (CuO + H2So4 ---> CuSo4 + H2O) then add iron to DISPLACE the copper (CUSo4 + Fe ---> FeSo4 + Cu)