AQA Biology B1b Evolution and Environment

Biology Part B1b Evolution and Environment 

1)Animal & Plant, Adaption & Competition

2)Reproduction & Genes (Inheritance,Types of Reproduction,Cloning,New ways of Cloning,Genetic Engineering)

3)Evolution (Origins of Life,Theories of Evolution,Natural Selection,Extinction)

4)Human Impact On Environment (Sustainble Development,Future,Global Warming,Acid Rain) 

 

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Adaption in Animals & Plants

Animals- animals in COLD climates have THICK FUR AND FAT under the skin to CONSERVE HEAT. Some animals in the Artic are white in the winter and brown in the summer due to camouflage.

Big Animals = Small Surface Area (compared to their volume) means they can CONSERVE HEAT more easily but it is more DIFFICULT to LOOSE heat.

Animals- animals in DRY conditions are adapted to CONSERVE WATER and to stop them getting TOO HOT. Animals may hunt at night so they remain COOL during the day.

Plants- plants compete for LIGHT, WATER & NUTRIENTS, their well adapted to CONSERVE WATER. Plants have THORNS, POISNOUS CHEMICALS & WARNING COLOURS to put animals off.

Plants CONSERVE WATER via EXTENSIVE ROOTS, WAXY LEAVES, SMALL LEAVES & STORAGE IN STEMS.

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Competition in Animals & Plants

Plants- All plants compete for LIGHT, WATER & NUTRIENTS. Small plants may not recieve enough light due to taller plants etc, so that is why they might grow & flower EARLY.

 Some plants sprear their seeds over a wide area so that they don't compete with themselves.

Animals- Animals compete for FOOD, MATES, WATER & BREEDING SITES (TERRITORY).

An animals territory will be large enough to FIND WATER, FOOD, & SPACE FOR BREEDING.

Predators may COMPETE with prey, they may be camouflaged. Prey COMPETE WITH EACH OTHER to escape predators.

Some animals may have WARNING COLOURS so they don't get eaten.

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Inheritance & Types of Reproduction

Gametes are FEMALE & MALE SEX CELLS. Cell Nucleus contain CHROMOSOMES. Chromosomes contain GENES that CONTROL the characteristics of the body.

The Genetic Information is passed on to the offspring by the gametes.

Sexual Reproduction- involves the fusion of gametes, there is a MIX OF GENETIC INFORMATION coming from both parents therefore there is a VARIATION in the offspring.

Asexual Reproduction- does'nt involve the fusion of gametes, all GENETIC INFORMATION FROM ONE PARENT therefore there is NO VARIATION in the offspring.

These IDENTICAL individuals are known as CLONES.  

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Cloning

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Comments

Aishah Iqbal

thanks really helpful!

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