AQA A2 Sociology Unit 4 - Crime and Deviance - Criminal Justice System

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 11-05-14 15:09

Prevention of Crime

  • Intervention - Identifying problem groups
  • Community - Neighbourhood Watch 

Farrington & West - At Risk = poor, ethnic, parental conflicts, low school attendence

Crime Reduction Methods

  • Wilson & Kelling - Broken Windows Theory 
  • Importance of community = deterant (Displacement of crime)
  • High levels of crime = lack of informal social control

Clarke - Rational Choice Theory - cost of offending is less than benefits 

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Policing of Crime

  • Consensual - Police are supported by the community
  • Conflict - Police are not welcome

The Courts

  • Magistrates - Morgan & Russell - magistrates are either retired or in professional jobs
  • Crown - White and educated (3.1% are ethnic)

Trends in Sentencing 

  • Prison population = 80,000
  • Mainly for Drugs or Violence
  • 12,000 ethnic minority
  • 50% are re-offenders
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Punishment of Crime

Functionalist view

  • Durkhiem - Social Solidarity =  form and severity of punishment (values and norms)

Types of Punishment

  • Rehabilitation - Means of compensation (community service)  - More complex UK
  • Deterrence - Stop re-offending -  More complex UK
  • Incapacitation  - Death or Prison style punishment  - Less complex Iran / Complex UK
  • Retribution  - Revenge for crime - Less compex Iran

Marxists View 

  • Oppressive - through the Althussers RSA - Punishment depending on class
  • AO2 - Explains selective law enforcement and White collar Crime 
  • Capitalism = Time is money

Overall Evaluation 

  • Reductionist - social, enviromental and economic factors
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Punishment of Crime Two

Foucaults - Discipline and Punishment

  • Sovereign power - Rights over life and death through the monarchy 
  • Disaplinary powers - Right of 24hr survellience - Mental punishment = self survellience
  •  - This is seen in the Panoption, schools, asylums and barracks

Era Dependance

  • Pre-industrial era - Violent and Strict crimes (Banishment or Flogging)
  • Today - Imprisionment or fines (Still individuals reoffending)
  • Elias - Theory of Civilisation - offenders exert control upon themsevles 
  • AO2 - Garland = this will create mass incarceration 
  • (Social agencies changing to prision style)

Overall Evaluations

  • Not all crimes end in imprisonment = some are in restitubtive style punishment 
  • Taggings of Young offenders to keep them out of the system 
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