Psychodynamic Approach- A01 marks
- Unconscious mind motivates behavour, split into three parts- conscious-what we're aware of , pre-conscious-what we could be aware of(memories), unconscious-things we are unaware of e.g inappropriate sexual desires (explained through Ice-berg analogy).
- Freud believed we could repress things from our conscious mind - unconscious mind but our emotions would come through, to access freud used methods such as dream analysis, free association and transference.
- Believed our personality was split into three parts- Id (selfish part, ages 0-2, our biological instincts respond imed to instincts, based on pleasure principles) Ego (reality principle- parental side, ages 2-4, inappropriate sexual desires repressed, incharge of defence mech) Super ego (moral part, ages 4-6 -oedipus complex occures)
- Early childhood experiences, especially the relationships with our parents determine our adult personalities and behaviour
- Oedipus complex -little Hans case study description
Psychodynamic Approach- A02 marks
- Techniques of dream analysis, transference and free association used in therapy-successful in treating mental illnesses + depression. approach had huge impact of psychology - being the first approach to develop a therapy for mental health problems, still used in psychiatry. led to the development of other psychological therapies
- lacks falsifiability as we cannot disprove/prove what is unconscious- unscientific.
- The psychodynamic approach is deterministic because adult behaviour is determined by childhood experiences instincts and unconscious mind. It ignores free will.
- Freud's work was mainly done on the white middle class, mostly women which lacked variation as every class and culture is different and cannot be generalised to all.
Psychodynamic Approach (gender) A01 marks
- Freud believed that gender was closely related to both the relationship between the parent and the child and the resolution of the phallic stage.
- Freud suggested that gender identity and role are acquired during the third stage of psychosexual development.
- Freud believed that the first three years of the child’s life they are bisexual. This is because the child’s sexuality is shown to be both masculine and feminine; the child hasn’t portrayed a strong sense of any particular gender yet.
- Development of gender roles to be a result of the natural male state to be one of activity- boys abandom the passivity of his bisexual phase to become active and dominant. Female state s one of passivity-girls adopt passivity of bisexual stage and relinquishes her role.
Psychodynamic Approach (gender) Case Study
A study which doesn’t support Freud’s theory - Green (1978
- to see if gender identity was affected in atypical households.
- 37 children 3 and 20 years, living with parents either transsexual or homosexual.
- Children’s choice of toys, clothing , occupational choice and roles assumed were monitored, resulting in all but one child showing typical gender identity.
- shows - Freud’s theory of a secure gender identity requires the presence of both a mother and father is false. those without two parents with the traditional mother and father roles children can still have definite and secure gender identity
A study to support the Oedipus complex -Little Hans
- Freud described Hans’s phobia of horses - outward expression of his unconscious castration anxiety. His fear of horses - displaced fear of his father- Han’s father wore dark glasses (like blinkers) and had a beard (like a muzzle).
- According to Freud, Han’s fear was particularly strong- mother pregnant. This made Han’s very jealous,fear of horses falling was an unconscious desire for his father to drop down dead.
- criticised as it’s difficult to generalise from a study of 1 subject - other boys wouldn’t necessarily show the same anxiety as Han’s.
- Freud - accused of interpreting the case to support his own theory, never met Han’s -evidence unreliable as Han’s had witnessed a horrific horse accident ,easily have triggered his anxiety
As the child enters the phallic stage, the focus of its libido moves to the genitals and the development of girls and boys diverge.
- Boys enter the Oedipus complex- sexual energy is directed in to the male phallus,feelings for his mother become sexually intense.
- He desires his mother and is jealous of his father wanting to take his place- becomes anxious that his father will become aware of his feelings and castrate him.
- torn between his desire for his mother and his fear of his father. To avoid castration the boy uses a defence mechanism - ‘identification with the aggressor’, with the aggressor being the father. identify themselves with their father adopting how their father acts in an attempt to copy his attitude.
- girls unconsciously have desires for their father initially desiring for a penis, (‘penis envy’) however later understands she can’t have a penis so substitutes for wanting a baby and sees father as the love object.
- Girl sees her mother in the way and identifies with her so she won't find out
Biological Approach Assumptions - A01
- Behaviour and though processes have an innate, biological basis.
- The mind and brain are the same
- Human genes have evolved to adapt behaviour to the environment - Darwin theory
- Human characteristics e.g.intelligence are due to our genetic makeup
Biological Approach - A02
- Uses empirical methods which are expermental procedures in its investigations and has generated a large body of objective evidence
- Has many practical implications knowing how biology is involved in psychological disorders enables researchers to find suitable treatments.
- Approach is reductonist reduces all aspects of human behaviour to physical proccesses and the activity of our neurones- over simplistic - difficulty in explaining the most distinctive aspect of human behaviour- consciousness and self awareness
- Ignores the influence of the environment it is extreame on the nature/nurture debate-evidence parents,peers influence behaviour.
- deterministic as it ignores an individual’s free will as all thoughts, feelings and behaviour is due to your biological make-up
human nervous system/Neurones
The structure and function of neurones- Humans have 2 control systems that respond to the environment- The Nervous System - CNS + PNS The Endocrine system - Glands
The Nervous System - CNS includes brain and spine PNS includes somatic Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous System whch includes sympathetic branch + parasympathetic branch
Neurons- nerve cells that transmit nerve signals to and from the brain. Motor Neurons- carry messages from the brain + spinal cord (CNS) to organs and Muscle - Short dendrites long axon Sensory Neurons- carry messages from receptors in the body (PNS) to the brain and spinal cord- Long dendrites short axon Interconnecting Neurons- only in our visual system, brain, spinal cord. transfer from sensory neuron to other interconnecting neurons or motor neurons- short dendrites, short/long axon
human nervous system/Neurones
Components of the Neuron Axon- carries nerve impulses away from cell bodies Myelin Sheath- covers, protects (insulates) the axon, also helps to increase transmission of nerve impusles Node of Ranvier- axonal membrane is uninsulated - capable of generating electrical activity Dendrites- branches at the end of the axon each with its own terminal button Terminal Button- where the nerve impulses will send signals to adjacent cell- another muscle or neuron
Synaptic Transmission Synapse- the gap between the end of 1 neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron Allows electrical messages from one neuron to transfer to adjacent neuron known as synaptic transmission. When neuron is at rest- negative electrical charge inside cell , positive charge outside. Electrical impulse moves down neuron, along the axon - known as Action Potential - process reverses electrical charge i.e positive inside, negative outside
Neurotransmitters - can inhibit (decrease the firing of a cell) or excite (increase the firing of a cell) Main neurotransmitters: Dopamine - affects emotional arousal, pleasure, voluntary movements Serotonin- regulates sleep, wakefullness and aggressive behaviour- involved in pain Endorphine- affect mood and reduce feelings of pain ( natural painkiller)
Nervous system (PNS)
The Peripheral Nervous System has two divisions:
Autonomic nervous system -maintains homeostasis by controlling glands and vital muscles - heart, stomache - opperates involuntary Somatic nervous system - controls skeletal muscles and recieves info to and from sensory receptors
Autonomic Nervous System Acts as link between viscera (heart, stomach, intestines,glands etc) and CNS