Approaches

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  • Created by: Cicely
  • Created on: 03-05-13 09:50

Intro

FOR EACH APPROACH YOU MUST NO AT MIN.:

A01

  • 3 assumptions
  • 1 research methods

A02

  • 2 strengths
  • 2 weaknesses
  • 1 debate link
  • 1-2 compare and contrast to another approach
  • 2 topic links
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Biological Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                  1 DEBATE LINK

  • Genes                                                               Nature/Nurture or Free will/Determinist
  • Evolution
  • Causal Level of Analysis                                  COMPARE/CONTRAST   Behaviourist

RESEARCH METHOD                                          2 TOPIC LINKS     crime      gender

  • experimental methods/animal research

2 STRENGTHS

  • scientific
  • empirical studies

2 WEAKNESSES

  • reductionist
  • determinist
2 of 8

Behavioural Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                         1 DEBATE LINK

  • all behaviour is learnt                                               Nurture/Nature or Determinism or
  • Operant Conditioning                                               Reductionist/Holism
  • Classical Condition

RESEARCH METHOD                                                  COMPARE/CONTRAST 

  •  experimental/lab based/animal research                 Biology/Cognative

2 STRENGTHS                                                              2 TOPIC LINKS  Crime  Autism

  • scientific                                                                    Child Dev.
  • behaviour modification (used as therapy)

2 WEAKNESSES

  • environmentally deterministic
  • humans are passive (dehumanises people)
3 of 8

Social Learning Theory

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                            1 DEBATE LINK

  • Bridge between Behaviourist/Cognative                     Nurure over Nature, but stands
  • Observational learning                                                in the middle of all 4 other debates
  • ARRM (attention, retention, replication, motivation)  

RESEARCH METHOD                                                    COMPARE/CONTRAST

  • Labs/Observation                                                       Behaviorist, Cognative

2 STRENGTHS                                                               2 TOPIC LINKS

  • less reductionist than Bio and Behav                        Gender, Crime
  • explains cultural differences

2 WEAKNESSES

  • no explaination of abstract ideas
  • doesn't give explainations of HOW cog processes work
4 of 8

Cognative Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                               1 DEBATE LINK  Reductionist

  • Humans are information processors                              COMPARE/CONTRAST 
  • Mind = Computer processor (input/output etc)              
  • Working model of Memory                                             Behvaiourism, SLT

RESEARCH METHODS                                                     2 TOPIC LINKS

  • Experimental/Lab based                                                RAF, Cog and Law

2 STRENGTHS

  • Nature AND Nurture
  • Applied to CBT therapy (used widely)

2 WEAKNESSES

  • Sees humans as mechanical
  • Models are over simplified
5 of 8

Psychodynamic Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                      1 DEBATE LINK

  • structure of mind (conscious/unconcious)            Psychology/Science
  • structure of personality (ID, ego, superego)         Middle of all 4 other debates
  • psychosexual stages of development

RESEARCH METHOD                                              COMPARE/CONTRAST

  • case studies                                                         Biology, Humanism

2 STRENGTHS                                                         2 TOPIC LINKS

  • case studies in depth                                           Gender,  Crime
  • middle positions in most debates

2 WEAKNESSES

  • unscientific
  • unfalsifiable
6 of 8

Humanistic Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                             1 DEBATE LINK

  • Roger's free will                                                          freewill/determinism or
  • actual/ideal self                                                           holism/reductionism
  • Maslows hierachy of needs and self actualisation

RESEARCH METHODS                                                 COMPARE/CONTRAST

  • CCT (client centred therapy)                       Psychodynamic, behaviourism or biological

2 STRENGTHS                                                              2 TOPIC LINKS

  • supportive nature of cct                                            crime, cognition and law
  • alterntaive to science

2 WEAKNESSES

  • subjective
  • unscientific
7 of 8

Eclectic Approach

3 ASSUMPTIONS                                                   1 DEBATE LINK

  • Pick n mix                                                          all debates
  • Trimodal model
  • Types of eclectic                                               COMPARE/CONTRAST

RESEARCH METHODS                                         all

  • ALL!                                                                  TOPIC LINKS

2 STRENGTHS                                                       all

  • treatments e.g. CBT
  • Too much emphasis on 1 approach may mean that details are missed in other theories

2 WEAKNESSES

  • 'Jack of all trades' master of none
  • irreconcilable differences  between approaches (can't always merge them)

 

COMPARE/CONTRAST

  • all

 

  • all 
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