Applied anatomy and physiology



Functions of the skeleton:

  • Support - of the muscles and vital organs
  • Protection - mainly by flat bones
  • Movement - different joints and bones allow different movement
  • Shape - structure
  • Mineral storage - such as calcium, for bone formation
  • Blood cell production - red blood cells formed in bone marrow

Types of bones:

  • Short bones (enable finer, controlled movements): Carpals, tarsals
  • Long bones (enable gross movement): Humerus, radius, ulna, phlanges, metacarpals, femur, tibia, fibula
  • Flat bones (protect vital organs): Cranium, jaw, clavicle, ribs, pelvis, sacrum, talus
  • Irregular bones (shaped to protect): Vertebrae, patella

Synovial joints: Ball & socket (where adduction + abduction can occur), Hinge (where flexion + extension can occur).

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The main joints & muscles:

  • Shoulder - deltoid, trapezius, pectorials, latissimus dorsi, biceps, triceps, rotator cuff
  • Elbow - biceps, triceps
  • Hip - gluteals, hip flexors
  • Knee - quadriceps group, hamstring group
  • Ankle - tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius

Ligaments = bands of fibres attatced to bones, linking joints together

Tendons = strong cords joining muscle to bone

Muscles come in pairs (e.g. biceps + triceps) as they cannot push, only pull:

  • Agonist - muscle which contracts to start movement
  • Antagonist - muslcle which relaxes to allow movement to take place

Isotonic contractions = where the muscle changes length, resulting in limb movement (concentric - muscle shortens, eccentric - muscle lengthens)

Isometric contractions = where the length does not change - no limb movement.

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Gaseous exchange:

  • 1 - Oxygen gets breathed in, passes through alveoli and into red blood cells in the capillaries
  • 2 - The oxygen combines woth the haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
  • 3 - At the same time, haemoglobin carries CO2 from the body to the capillaries
  • 4 - The CO2 in the capillaries passes through alveoli and is breathed out

Diffusion pathway = the distance travelled during diffusion, it is short in gaseous exchange.

Mechanics of breathing:

  • Inhalation/inspiration - (resting) The diaphram moves down, intercostal muscles contract, rib cage muves up & out. This reduces the air pressure inside the chest cavity so air rushes in.
  • Exhalation/expiration - (resting) The diaphram moves up, intercostal muscles relax, rib cage moves down & in. This increases the pressure in the chest cavity so air rushes out.
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  • Tidal volume - normal amount of air between inspiration and expiration per breath
  • Inspiratory reserve volume - maximal amount of air that could be inhaled after tidal volume
  • Expiratory reserve volumemaximal amount of air that could be exhaled after tidal volume
  • Residual volume - volume of air remaining in the lungs after expiratory reserve volume
  • Vital capacity - largestvolume of air that can be forcibly expired after the deepest possible inspiration
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The pathway of the blood:

  • Deoxygented blood enters the right atrium through the superior + inferior vena cava.
  • It then passes through the right ventricle 
  • The pulmonary artery transports the blood to the lungs
  • Gaseous exchange occurs, resulting in oxygenated blood
  • The pulmonary vein transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
  • It then passes through a valve to the left ventricle
  • Oxygenated blood is ejected from the heart and is transported to the body via the aorta

Diastole = the phase of the heartbeat when the chambers relax + fill with blood.

Systole = the phase of the heartbeat when the chambers empty of blood.

Stroke volume = amount of blood pumped out of the heart be each ventricle during one contraction.

Cardiac output = stroke volume X heart rate

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Anaerobic - respiration in the absence of oxygen. Glucose = energy + lactic acid. Only for a short time as energy isn't being generated. (e.g 100m sprint)

Aerobic - respiration in the presence of oxygen. Glucose + oxygen = energy + CO2 + water. (e.g marathon runner)

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption/EPOC/oxygen debt = The additional oxygen consumption during recovery above what is usually required at rest.

The recovery process:

  • Cool-down - allows lactic acid to disperse safely, helps to maintain elevated breathing/heart rate and therefore blood flow.
  • Manipulation of diet - rehydrating, eating carbs as an additional energy source, eating protein to repair muscles
  • Ice baths/massage - to prevent delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), causes vasoconstriction, removes lactic acid (ice bath), causes vasodilation which speeds up healing process and reduces pain.
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Immediate effects:

  • temperature increase
  • heart rate increase (heart is working harder to deliver oxygen to muscles)
  • increased levels of sweating
  • increase in depth & frequency of breathing

Short-term effects:

  • tiredness
  • lightheadedness
  • nausea
  • aching and cramp (a sudden contraction of muscles)

Long-term effects:

  • change in body shape such as more toned muscles
  • improved components of fitness
  • building of muscle strength
  • increased heart size (hypertrophy) + decreased resting heart rate (bradycardia)
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