- Created by: anna
- Created on: 11-05-17 19:53
Anti-social behaviour = defined as harmful, hostile behaviour to others. There is a mild anti-social behaviour on the spectrum. Being loud in public to serve aggression, violence.
Unstable high self-esteem and aggression
Unstable high self-esteem linked to aggressive behaviour.
Unstable high self-esteem is easily threatened and always fluctuating.
If threatening, a person is then aggressive in order to maintain inflated opinion of oneself.
Narcissistic, egotistical and self-enhancement.
Culture and aggression = famous for infighting over women or status within cultures
Culture dimensions related to aggression: power di
Power distance =
Bond et al studied insults in Hong Kong and USA
Insults directed by a boss towards a subordinate were percieved as less aggressive in Hong Kong compared to the US
More acceptable for a boss to aggress against an employee in Hong Kong as there is a high power distance.
Cultural dimensions related to aggression: Childre
American children tend to be more aggressive than Japanese children.
American children are raised for assertion. Japanese children for compliance.
North American and European parents are more likely to use permissive or authoritative parenting styles, allowed to have a voice and be independent.
East Asians are more likley to use authoritarian parenting styles. Value compliance want children to be obedient.
Honour related violence
Conflict breaks out when one person has insulted another's reputation. Retaliation to restore honour.
Crimes that occur in the context of robberies, assults and drug deals.
What are cultures of honour?
A culture of honour developed in the US south and west in the 19th Century, the frontier and wild west.
Little law enforcement on the frontier, so people had to defend themselves.
Defensiveness generalised to the protection of one's reputation.
Threats and insults are perceived as threats to one's personal honour, integrity and reputation.
Cultures of honour: gender role traditionalism
Reflects a traditional gender role ideology. Insults are seen as an attack on one's masculine or feminine honour. Males defend honour through acts of violent retribution.
Honour killings; if a woman is perceived to dishonour her family, family members may kill her to restore the family honour.
Cultures of honour: domestic violence
Cultures that emphasise male honour and female fidelity may sustain patterns of domestic violence. Greater tolerance of jealousy-related violence in Brazil. Women are expected to stand by their man.
Culture of honour in the USA
Male students from the US north or south completed an unrelated experiement. Then walked down a narrow hall lined with file drawers. Experimental confederate deliberately bumbed into the participant and called him rude.
Results: Southern males were more likely to feel that this was their honour that was insulted, had higher levels of cortisol and testosterone. Shook the experiementer's hand more strongly and restored masculine honour.
Control condition, southern males were more polite than nothern males
It shows that when southern male's honour and high self-esteem is threatened they need to restore this honour
Southern males were charming when insulted this caused aggression.
Cohen's hypothesis: social organisation leads to m
Social organisation increases the pressure to conform to cultural norms.
Cultural norm endorses honour-related violence, then social organisation increases honour-related violence.
Social disorganisation decreases pressure to conform to cultural norms.
Without strong organisation and government life is nasty, brutish and short but this may only be true for the north.
If a culture condones violence, such as in the southern and western states, then social organisation may maintain violence.
Social organisation definition
1. Stability of the community, little residential mobility
2. Stability of the family
3. Religion, more religiosity the more social organisation
Social organisation and cultures of honour
Greater social organisation means greater pressure to conform to societal values.
If there is little residential mobility, one's reputation is important because one may not be able to move away if one's reputation is damaged.
Therefore, one can restore damaged reputation and honour through violence.
US South and West is related to more honour related homicides and less support for gun control in socially organised communities than in socially disorganised communities.
US north is related to fewer honour-related homicides and more support for gun control in socially organised communities than in socially disorganised communities.
Critique of Cohen
within-group variability in the US south and west
honour related violence often occurs when drugs or alcohol is consumed
More traditional gender role ideology may encourage hypermasculinity in south and west.
Link beween herding and cultures of honour (Nisbet
Herding hypothesis is linked to cultures of honour originate in herding societies but not in farming societies.
Dry and hilly countries are conductive to herding, moist and flat countries are conducive to farming.
Herders must exercise vigilance to protect animals from harm or they lost their livelihood.
Chonic self-defensiveness worked its way into US sourthern and Western culture.
Hypervigilance in protecting one's animals generalised to hyptervigilance to insults, culminating in a culture of honour.
Low status compensation theory: Henry
Herders are more vigilant for threats because herders tend to have lower socioeconomic status. Lower status associated with lower self-worth.
Compensate for lower status by defending self-worth. Hypervigilant for threats for self worth. Respond aggressively to people who threaten their self-worth. Cultures of honour exist in places without a history of herding. American south has a history of herding compared to the north. American south also tends to be poorer than American north.
Culture of honour may have developed in the south to restore self-worth after defeat in the American civil war.
Theory of compensatory Machoism
Males across cultures commit more violent acts than females do.
Evolutionary explanations state that men have fought each other to gain access to females.
Aggression in males is sexually selected
cultural explanation is compensatory machoism
division of labour by sex
Females socialised for compliance, males for assertiveness
Greater division of labour by sex, greater the father absence
gender role learning involves modelling adult behaviour
absence of father limited oppurtunity to aquire a masculine identity
Cross sex identity
Father absence leads to boy's lack of masculine identity
Spend much of childhood with mother
Boys acquire a more feminine identity
Cultures with high father absence more likley to introduce initiation ceremonies for boys who reach puberty
Stamping in on masculinity ceremonies
Eradicates femininity identity
In cultures, with high father absence but no initiation ceremonies at adolescene, boys undo cross sex identity by engaging in aggressive behaviour. Acquire masculine identity through this process of compensatory machoism.
Support for theory of compensatory machoism
Bacon, child and barry: link between aggressive crimes and a higher prevalence of exclusive mother child co-sleeping arrangements
Reflects father absence.
studies in the US have found that male juvenile delinquents are more likley to come from father absent households than non-delinquents.
Critique of theory of compensatory machoism
Father absence confounded with low socioeconomic status
financial strain could be what is causing the aggression, not the absence of a father
Vast majority of men raised by single mothers do not go onto commit violent acts.
Boys do not necessarily need a male role mode
Egalitarianism - embrace femininity