Behavioural Explanation of Phobias
BAGBY & THE WATERFALL
- woman got foot stuck in rocks near waterfall
- became increasingly panicked
- the sound of the waterfall was paired with the feelings of panic
- she escaped..
- but had an intense and irrational fear of running water for many years
- feet trapped in rocks = unconditioned stimulus
- fear of trap = unconditioned response
- running water = conditioned stimulus
- fear of running water = conditioned response
EXAMPLE OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CAUSING PHOBIAS
Psychodyamic Explanation of Phobias
FREUD & LITTLE HANS
- Hans had a fear that horses would bite him
- this was during the Oedipus stage
- Freud stated this was due to fear of castration from his father once finding out about sexual desires for his mother
- Freud said that this fear of castration had been displaced onto horses
- the ego displaces thoughts that may cause unconcious conflict
SHOWS THE EGOS DISPLACEMENT OF CONFLICT WHICH CAUSES PHOBIAS OF AN EXTERNAL OBJECT.
LANG AND LAZOVIK & THE SNAKES
- had two groups of people
- each person had a phobia of snakes
- group 1 recieved systematic desensitisation
- group 2 recieved no treatment
- those in group 1 showed less fear of snakes than those in group 2...
- both immediately and 6 months after therapy
SHOWS THE SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM EFFECTIVENESS OF SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION ON PHOBIAS.
RACHMAN'S 4-STEP PROCESS
1. Presence of obsessional thoughts/images
2. Catastrophic misinterpretation of the thought/image
3. Fear & high levels of anxiety
4. Attempts to resist and avoid the thoughts