And the Glory of the Lord

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  • Created by: Qiao-Chu
  • Created on: 20-03-13 18:39

Background

  • Baroque (1600-1750)
    • Uses basso continuo as harmonic structure
    • Usually organ or harpsichord
    • Mix of polyphonic and homophonic
  • Affection
    • Same mood or character throughout
    • Joyous
  • Composer
    • George Frederick Handel 1685 to 1759
    • Also wrote Water Music
    • Messiah written in 1741 for SATB and orchestra
    • First performed in 1742
  • Oratorio
    • Vocal work based on words and stories from the Bible
    • Chorus, soloist, orchestra
    • Recitative, aria, chorus - like opera
    • Words in English - different to opera
    • Performed in churches, no acting
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Melody

  • Melodic Ideas
    • 4 motifs
    • 1. A chord, ascending step movement
    • 2. Descending sequences
    • 3. Conjunct movement, imitation, leap of 4 at beginning and end
    • 4. Dotted minims on pedal
    • 1+2, 3+4, then altogether
    • Interwoven, interchange
  • Syllabic and Melismatic
    • Motif 1 is syllabic - one syllable per note
    • Motif 2 melismatic - more than one note per syllable
  • Word Painting
    • Slowly revealing 'revealed'
    • Homophonic writing for 'together'
    • 4th motif emphasis
  • Sequence
    • 2nd motif has repeated series of notes
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Harmony

  • Functional Harmony
    • Modulations to related keys only
    • Joyour mood maintained
    • Modulation to dominant and dominant of dominant
    • Diatonic harmony
  • Pedal
    • Repeated tonic and dominant
  • Cadences
    • Mainly perfect or imperfect
    • Ends on plagal
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Tonality

  • Functional Tonality
    • Minor keys avoided
    • All diatonic
    • A major to dominant E major to dominant of dominant B major
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Texture

  • Polyphonic
    • Many different melodies sounding together
    • Interlocking of motifs
  • Homophonic
    • Melody and accompaniment
    • One motif
  • Monophonic
    • Bars 108 and 109
    • Solo in the sopranoes
  • Imitation
    • Different parts sounding one after the other
    • Staggered entries
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Structure

  • Motif
    • 4 Vocal motifs introduced by SATB
    • One after the other then interwoven
  • Introduction
    • Orchestral introduction
  • Coda
    • Adagio - slower
    • Tutti - all together
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Rhythm and Metre

  • Metre
    • 3/4
    • Fast simple triple
  • Tempo
    • Allegro
    • Quick and lively
    • Joyous affection
    • Adagio at the end 4 bars
  • Hemiola
    • End of introduction
    • popular Baroque feature
    • Only used in 3/4 time
  • Motifs
    • Variety of note lengths
    • Reflect natural seech rhythm
    • Dramatic pause at the end
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Instumentation

  • SATB
    • Soprano
    • Alto
    • Tenor
    • Bass
  • Baroque Orchestra
    • Doubles vocal part
    • String family prominent
    • Violins replaced viols
    • More woodwind
  • Basso Continuo
    • Cello and double bass play octave lower
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Dynamics

  • Terraced Dynamics
    • Common feature
    • Blocks of loud and soft
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