Anatomy and Physiology (A+P)

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  • Created by: emilygcx
  • Created on: 04-06-15 14:12

Movement Analysis

WRIST - CONDYLOID // Flexion (Wrist Flexors) / Extension (Wrist Extenders)

ANKLE - HINGE // Dorsiflexion (Tibialis Anterior) / Planatrflexion (Gastrocnemius)

SPINE - GLIDING // Flexion (Rectus Ab.) / Extension (Erector Spinae) / Laterl F. (External Oblique)

ELBOW - HINGE // Flexion (Tricep Bracii) / Extension (Bicep Brachii)

KNEE - HINGE // Flexion (Bicep Femoris) / Extension (Rectus Femoris)

HIP - BALL AND SOCKET // Flexion (illiopsoas) / Extension (Gluetus Maximus) / Abduction (Gluteus Medius) / Adduction (Adductor Longus)

RADIO-ULNA - PIVOT // Pronation (Pronator Treus) / Supination (Supinator Muscle)

SHOULDER - BALL AND SOCKET // Flexion (Exterior Deltoid) / Extension (Posterior Deltoid) / Abduction (Middle Deltoid) / Adduction (Lattisimus Dorsi) / Rotation (Infraspinatus) / Circumduction (Trapeziuss) / Horizontal Flexion (Teres Major) / Horizontal Extension (Teres Minor)

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Rotator Cuff / Core Stability


Subscapularis, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Supraspinatus

Role; to stabalise the upper arm bone to the shoulder and allow range of movements


Internal and External Obliques, Rectus Abdominus, Multifidus

Role: to give us good posture, help prevent injury (especially to the back) and give stability to the mid regions of the body when moving

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Types of Contraction

ISOMETRIC: Movement not created. Muscle contracts but DOESNT shorten or lengthen. Tension is produced. STOPS joint movement for example a handstand.

ISOTONIC / ECCENTRIC: Muscle Contracts and Lengthens. CONTROLS joint movement Mainly when using any sort of weight. Tension is produced and joint movement is controlled (acts as a brake) eg a downward phase of a bicep curl

ISOTONIC / CONCENTRIC: Muscle Contracts and Shortens whilst tension is produced. CAUSES joint movement. eg upward phase of bicep curl

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Muscle Fibre Types

TYPE 1 - Structure: red / small / many capillaries / many mitochondira / high myoglobin concentraion / low glycogen stores / Functional: slow contractile speed / low contractile strength / high fatigue resistance / high aerobic capacity / low anaerobic capacity / endurance events

eg a marathon run

TYPE 2 - Structure: pink / medium / fewer capillaries / fewer mitochondria / fewer myoglobin concentration / fewer glycogen stores / Functional: fast contractile speed / intermediate contractile strength / moderate fatigue resistant / high anaerobic capacity / suited to mix of intensity activities

eg a team game like football (midfielder)

TYPE 3 - Structure: white / large / few capillaries / few mitochondria / low myoglobin concentration / high gylcogen stores / Functional: fast contractile speed / high contracile strength / low fatigue resistance / low aerobic capacity / high anaerobic capacity / explosive events

eg a 100m sprint

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Warm Up / Cool Down

Warm Up //

  • Inc Muscle Temperature (Inc Nerve Impulses and Inc Contraction Speed)
  • Dec Muscle Viscocity
  • Inc Elasticty (Inc Strength of Contraction)
  • Inc Dissociation of Oxygen (More Oxygen to Muscles / Delay OBLA)
  • Inc Venous Return (Delay OBLA)
  • Dec Blood Viscocity
  • Inc Blood Flow
  • Improves Vascular Shunt

Cool Down //

  • Speed Up Removal of Lactic Acid and Carbon Dioxide
  • Reduces DOMS
  • Maintain HR/SV/VR
  • Muscles Flushed with Oxygenated Blood
  • Prevent Blood Pooling
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Impact of Sport on Skeletal/Muscular Systems

OSTEOPOROSIS - bone disease caused by lack of calcium to the bones - WB sports eg running sends calcium to areas of shock and strengthens the bones.

OSTEOARTHRISTS - breaking down of articular cartiledge in between bones causing pain and swelling caused by WB sports.

OVERUSE - caused by repetitive actions in sports eg stress fractures and tennis elbow

FRACTURES - mainly caused by contact sports eg rugby. heal back stronger after injury

GROWTH PLATES - epiphyseal plates (end of long bones) can cause stunted growth if damaged.

JOINT STABILITY - sport and exercises eg tennis increase joint stability. injury eg sprains decrease joint stability. (dislocation and muscle strains always a weakness)

POSTURE - hypertrophy of core stability muscles

MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY - bigger and stronger muscles (inc joint stability and ligaments get stronger) in contact sports eg ice hockey

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STABILITY is being in a position where it is difficult to disturb balance.

CENTRE OF MASS is where the body at which body is balanced in all directions.

Stability can be increased by:

Centre of Mass  // Line of Gravity // Base of Support // Mass

in Linear Motion the force goes through the Centre of Mass

in Angular Motion the force goes outside the Centre of Mass

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Newtons Laws of Motion // Types of Motion

Newton 1: Law of Inertia - A Body stays at a state of rest (or uniform velocity) until an external force is acted upon it. Eg a golf ball will stay still until hit by a golf club

Newton 2: Law of Acceleration - When a force acs on an object the rate of change of momentum experienced by the object is proportional to the size of the force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Eg a penalty kick - the change in momentum on the ball will be proportional to the size of the force and the direction in which it takes place.

Newton 3: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Eg you exert a force down onto a trampoline bed and the bed exerts an equal and opposite force that pushed you back up


Linear Motion: Motion along a straight or curved line with all parts moving in the same speed/direction. Generated through the COM eg throwing a tennis ball without spin

Angular Motion: Motion in a circle or part of a circle around the axis of rotation. An eccentric force generated outside the COM eg a gymnast on the highbars / arm around the shoulder in a serve

General Motion: A combination of Linear and Angular motion eg hitting a tennis ball with spin.

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Conduction and Cardiac Cycle

Conduction Cycle:

Signal Recieved by SA Node - Atria Contract - AV Nodes Activated - Bundle of His - Purkinje Fibres - Ventricles Contract


Atria Fill With Blood - Atria Contract - Ventricles Contract

LINK // Starts with CARDIAC, then BOTH, then the Conudction cycle, then ends with BOTH

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Heart Rate (HR) is the amount of times the heart beats per minute. Average (70bpm). (60 for a fit person) Under 60 - bradycardia. (Max is 220-age) HR Increases during exercise (the amount depends on the type of exercise)

Stroke Volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one beat. Average (70ml.) Increases to around 150ml during exercise.

Cardiac Output (Q) is the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles in one minute (HR x SV = Q) Average (5 l/pm) which increases to about 25 l/pm per minute

HR Increases during exercise, SR increases but gradually decreases when it hits a maximum point, therefore Q also increases during exercise.

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Control of Heart Rate


Proprioreceptors detect an increase in movement, Baroreceptors an increase in BP and Chemoreceptors a decrease in PH. These send a signal to the CCC which send a signal down the accelerator nerve to the SA node to increase HR.


Proprioreceptors detect a decrease in movement, Baroreceptors a decrease in BP and Chemoreceptors an increase in PH. These send a signal to the CCC which send a signal down the vagus nerve to the SA node to decrease HR.


Adrenaline released from adrenal glands which stimulates SA node to inc strength of contraction (SV increases)


Temperature increases and so does speed of nerve impulse. VR increases and SV increases (Starlings law of the heart)

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Vascular Shunt

The Vascular Shunt is the redistribution of blood around the body during exercise (controlled by VCC)

Proprioceptors detect Increase in movement, Baroreceptors detect an increase in blood pressure, Chemoreceptors detect a decrease in PH.

They send a signal to the VCC. Increase sympathetic stimulation of arterioles and PCS to non essential organs which cause them to vasoconstrict. Increased sympathetic stimulation of arterioles and PCS to leading muscles causing them to vasodilate.

At REST  blood is sent to working/essential organs eg the digestion system.

At EXERCISE blood is redirected to working muscles away from the non essential organs.

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Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide Transportation

Oxygen is transported round the body by:

  • being dissolved in plasma
  • combining with haemoglobin (oxyhaemoglobin)

Carbon Dioxide is transported round the body by:

  • being dissolved in plasma
  • combined with haemoglobin (carbominahaemoglobin)
  • dissolved in water as carbonic acid

// Smoking //

Smoking proudces carbon monoxide. Haemoglobin as a higher affinity for carbon monoxide than oxygen. As a result, pp of oxygen decreases so less oxygen is transported around the body to the muscles.

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Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure is the contractive force of the heart ventricles that provide the pressure to force blood through the arterioles (blood flow x resistance).

Typical Resting Value 120mmHg/80mmHg (systolic/diastolic)

During exercise systolic increases gradually and diastolic stays basically the same.

Hypertension: permanent high blood pressure (140mmHg/90mmHg)

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Venous Return

Venous Return: Amount of Deoxygenated blood returning from the heart.

POCKET VALVES: prevent backflow of blood

MUSCLE PUMP: helps push blood back towards the heart

RESPIRATORY PUMP: pressure rises in abdomen during exercise. veins squeeze as a result and blood is forced back into the heart

SMOOTH MUSCLE: contraction and relaxation of muscle layer in veins help push blood back to the heart

GRAVITY: blood returning from above the heart

V/R increases when more blood leaves the heart and SV increases as a result (Starlings Law of the Heart)

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS: a disease of the arteries characterised by the build up of fatty material in the artery walls which deprives the heart of blood and oxygen as well as narrows the lumen.

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS: the thickening and hardening of the artery walls, losing their elacisity. made worse by age and smoking.

these lead too:

ANGINA: partical blockage of the coronary artery causing inner chest pain when exercising as little oxygen is getting to the myocardium,

HEART ATTACK: (myocardium infraction) severe or sudden restriction in oxygen to a part of the heart causing damage to the muscle wall and perminant damage.

Exercise Guidlines

F I T T (5 times a week / moderate / 30 minutes / aerobic)

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CHD Risk Factors

Risk Factors

  • Sedentary Lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Obesity (BMI over 30)
  • High Cholsterol and Blood Pressure
  • Family History
  • Alcohol
  • Age

Reducing CHD's

  • Have a BAHL (lower salt, exercise)
  • Keep to a Healthy Weight
  • Give Up Smoking or Don't Smoke
  • Reduce Alcohol Consumption
  • Keep Blood Pressure Under Control
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CV Adaptations

Cardiac Hypertrophy. Heart gets bigger and stronger. Q and SV increase, RHR decreases.

Capillarisation: Increase number of capillaries increases gaseous exchange so more oxygen gets to working muscles

Increased Elacisity of Artery Walls means blood pressure decreases and arteries can withstand higher pressures

Increased Blood Volume: more haemoglobin meaning more oxygen gets to the working muscles.

Increased Fibrinogen which reduces viscosity of blood to reduce risk of clotting

Delays OBLA

Reduces changces of CHD's

Improves Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction

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Mechanics of Breathing

Inspiration: (active)

rest: diaphragm and intercostals contact / diaphragm flatterns and ribs move up and out / thoracic cavity volume increases / pressure in lungs decreases / air rushes into lungs

exercise: extra muscles contact (pectoralis minor) / diaphragm flatterns with more force / more air rushes into lungs / ribs move up and out further / thoracic cavity volume increases greater / pressure in lungs further decreases / more air rushes into lungs

Expiration: (passive)

rest: diapragm and external intercostals relax / diaphragm pushes upwards and ribs move down and in / throacic cavity volume decreases / pressure in lungs increases / air rushes out of lungs

exercise: extra muscles contract (rectus abdominus) / diapragm pushed up with more force / greater decrease in thoracic cavity volume / ribs move in and down further / more air pushed out of lungs

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Respiratory Control

Inspiration //

Proprioreceptors detect an increase in movement, Baroreceptors detect an increase in blood pressure and Chemoreceptors detect a decrease in PH. These send a signal to the RCC which send a signal down the Phrenic nerve to the external intercostals and diaphragm.

Expiration //

Proprioreceptors detect a decrease in movement, Baroreceptors detect a decrease in blood pressure and Chemoreceptors detect an increase in PH. These send a signal to the RCC which send a signal down the Phrenic nerve to the external intercostals and diaphragm.

Inspiratory Centre; sends signal to resp muscles which contract to inc thoracic cavity volume. (rest) also stimulates extra muscles during exercise eg pectoralis minor  which inc depth of breathing

Expiratory Centre; Inactive at rest, Exercise it stimulates expiratory muscles eg rectus abdominus which causes forced expiration.

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Gaseous Exchange


rest: oxygen in alveoli has a high PP / oxygen in capillaries has a low PP / oxygen diffuses from high to low concentration / co2 in alveoli has low PP / co2 in capillaries has high PP / co2 diffuses from high to low concentration

exercise: oxygen in alveoli has a high PP / oxygen in capillaries has a LOWER PP / increased diffusion gradient / more O2 diffuses  / co2 in alveoli has low PP / co2 in capillaries has higher PP / increased diffusion gradient


rest; oxygen in blood has has high PP / oxygen in muscles has low PP / oxygen diffuses from blood to muscles / co2 in blood has low PP / co2 in muscles has a high PP / co2 diffuses from muscles to blood

exercise; oxygen in blood has has high PP / oxygen in muscles has lower PP / more oxygen diffuses from blood to muscles / co2 in blood has low PP / co2 in muscles has a higher PP / more co2 diffuses from muscles to blood

Bohr effect: inc temp and acidity of muscles means o2 and haemoglobin dissociate easier

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Lung Volumes / Effects on Respiratory System

lung volumes; frequency / amount of breathes per minute / resting 12-15 / max exercise 50 / tidal / amount you inspire per breath / resting 500ml / exercise 3-4L / minute ventilation / f x tv / rest 7.5l/pm / exercise 120 l/pm

AEROBIC TRAINING; more oxygen to working muscles / increased elacisity of lungs / increased surface area of alveoli / capillarisation / hypertrophy of respiratory muscles so contract with more force / lung volumes increase

ASTHMA; narrowing of bronchiles / triggers (dust, EIA, allergies, cold air) / performance decreases (less O2 to muscles) / treatment (blue; reliever, brown; preventer, IMT, diet) / warm up creates refactory / caffine

SMOKING; tar on lungs / dec lung volumes / damage to resp structures eg cilia / reduced gaseous exchange / diseases eg emphysema

ALTITUDE; inital dec in performance / hypoxic conditions / dehydration / inc capillarisation / inc red blood cells / inc vo2 max / improved gaseous exchange / improves things like long jump

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