passage of air-
nose- pharynx- larynx -trachea- bronchus- bronchioles- alveoli.
minute ventilation= number of breaths per min x tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity
partial pressure- the pressure exerted by an individual gas when it exists within a mixture of gasses.
Breathing during exercise- during exercise more muscles are involved as air needs to be forced in and out of the lungs more quickly. the extra inspiratory muscles lifts the sternum and the scalenes and pecroralis minor which helps lift the ribs, the extra expiratory muscles are the internal intercostals which pull the ribs down and in and the abdominal muscles which push the diaphragm up.
sagittal (median) plane
FLEXION- this occurs when there is a decrease in the angle that occurs around a joint.
EXTENSION- an increas in the angle that occurs around a joint.
PLANTARFLEXION- is a term used solely for the ankle joint.
DORSIFLEXION- bending the foot upwards towards the tibia.
frontal (coronal ) plane.
ABDUCTION- this is the movement occurs away from the mid line of the body for example, raising the arms out to the sides of the body.
ADDUCTION- this is when the movement occurs towards the mid line of the body for example lowering the arms back to the sides of the body .
transverse- horizontal plane.
HORIZONTAL ADDUCTION- arm moves forward across the body at a 90% angle of shoulder adduction.
HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION- arm moves backward across body at 90% angle of shoulder abduction.
ROTATION- movement of bone around its axis.
movement in two planes - saggital and transverse.
CIRCUMDUCTION- this is when the lower end of the bone moves around in a circle. its a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. occurs at the hip and shoulder joints.
superior vena cava
right and left pulmonary artery
left and right pulmonary veins
right and left ventricles
STROKE VOLUME- the amount of blood pumped out by the heart ventricles in each contraction.
VENOUS RETURN- volume of blood returning back to the heart via the veins.
HEART RATE- number of times the heart beats a minute.
CARDIAC OUTPUT - the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles per minute
WAY BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM-
heart-arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venule- veins- heart.