When Sodium Hydroxide is added to substances.
SO. SODIUM HYDROXIDE. now forever and always highlighted in pink.
Sodium hydroxide is added to certain substances and forms precipitates.
Added to CALCIUM = WHITE PRECIPITATE.
Added to MAGNESIUM = WHITE PRECIPITATE.
Added to ALUMINIUM = WHITE PRECIPITATE.
Added to IRON (II) = GREEN, THEN SLOWLY TURNS BROWN.
Added to IRON (III) = REDDISH-BROWN
Added to COPPER (II) = BLUE PRECIPITATE.
Added to ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE = DISSOLVES.
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TEST FOR NEGATIVE IONS.
CARBONATE IONS = DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
- if present, FIZZES and produces CARBON DIOXIDE.
HALIDE IONS = DILUTE NITRIC ACID and SLIVER NITRATE SOLUTION.
- if BROMIDE ions are present, produces a CREAM precipitate.
- if CHLORIDE ions are present, produces a WHITE precipitate.
- if IODIDE ions are present, produces a YELLOW precipitate.
SULFATE IONS =DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID&BARIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION.
- If present, produces a WHITE precipitate.
NITRATE IONS = SODIUM HYDROXIDE and a little ALUMINIUM POWDER.
- if present, produces AMMONIA and turns litmus paper BLUE.
CLICK ON THIS LINK. http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/sub_topic_negative_ions_test
When CARBONATES decompose on heating, they produce CARBON DIOXIDE.
They are many different COLOURS
- COPPER CARBONATE (GREEN)
- ZINC CARBONATE (WHITE)
- COPPER OXIDE (BLACK)
- HOT ZINC OXIDE (YELLOW)
- COOL ZINC OXIDE (WHITE)
NOW, TO TEST. CLICK ON THIS LINK:
When burnt in the air, ORGANIC SUBSTANCES produce CARBON DIOXIDE.
ALL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS contain CARBON.
ORGANIC SUBSTANCES that do not burn easily contain CARBON.
ORGANIC SUBSTANCES contain CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BONDS.
This makes them UNSATURATED.
IODINE and BROMINE (decolourised) both react with ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
BROMINE is used to test for UNSATURATED SUBSTANCES.
IODINE is used to test for CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BONDS.
TO TEST. CLICK THIS LINK.
There are two main spectrometers that matter. and that you should care about.
ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY.
ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY is for:
- Measuring very SMALL AMOUNTS.
MASS SPECTROMETERS are for:
- IDENTIFYING AND MEASURING elements in a substance,
- Finding RATIOS OF ISOTOPES in an element,
- Calculating RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS.
SPECTROSCOPIC methods use RADIATION.
THINK YOU KNOW IT? CLICK THIS LINK.http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/sub_topic_spectrometers#quiz