Anabolic Steroids - Extreme Physiology

Anabolic Steroids

Androgenic actions - involved in primary and secondary sex characteristics

Anabolic actions - positive effects of testosterone by inhibiting urinary nitrogen loss and stimulating protein synthesis

Testosterone has both these effects - ideally just want anabolic to promote muscle hypertrophy

Anabolic steriods have greater anabolic actions than testosterone

However all have some androgenic effects - not possible to separate the two

1 of 9

Biosynthesis

Sterioid hormones are derived from cholestrol (CH)

Testosterone is formed in leydig cells (95%) of testis and also in adrenal cortex

Mean testosterone production is about 8mg/day 

Epitestosterone is isomer produced in 12:1 ratio - so can be used to test how must testosterone should naturally be in the blood

2 of 9

Mode of action

1. Diffuses into the cell as it is lipid soluble

2. Combines with test binding protein and transports to nucelus

3. Interacts with hormone receptor elements and activates protein synthesis

Steriods may also produce effects via cell surface receptors

3 of 9

Structural analogues of testosterone

Isolated natural testosterone is ineffective if injected or taken orally - gets metabolised by liver

3 types of modification:

A. Make compound suitable for depot injection - keeps it at site of injection so absorption takes place over prolonged period of time

B. Addition of akyl group renders structure orally inactive

C. Allow oral dosing and sometimes increased potency

4 of 9

Clinical uses of steriods

Replacement therapy in men - stimulant development in delayed puberty, when testicles have been removed

Replacement therapy in women - sexual infantilism, restore libido in post menopausal women, gynaecological disorders

After surgery - aid muscle regeneration

Post WW2 - aid recovery of victims of concentration camps

Aids

Terminal diseases - to stimulate hunger and promote feeling of well being

These therapeutic doses would be much lower than what is used in sport.

5 of 9

Steroids in training

1. Cycling - period of use followed by period of abstinence (6-8 weeks), preffered by bodybuilders

2. Pyramiding - variation in cycling where dose built up in cycle to peak then reduced, though to reduce behavioural effects

3. Stacking - use of more than one at a time, to avoid plateauing, dogdy pharmacology 

6 of 9

Steroids in training

1. Cycling - period of use followed by period of abstinence (6-8 weeks), preffered by bodybuilders

2. Pyramiding - variation in cycling where dose built up in cycle to peak then reduced, though to reduce behavioural effects

3. Stacking - use of more than one at a time, to avoid plateauing, dogdy pharmacology 

7 of 9

Dosages

May be 100 x therapeutic recommended doses

Abuse cycles in males often followed by dosage with human chrorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)

Used to restimulate endogenous testosterone production

8 of 9

Side effects

Men:

Reduced spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, gynaecomastia (mammary tissue development)

Women:

Facial hair, deepening of voice, genital reconfiguration, enlarged ********

Both sexes:

Body hair, acne, anger, aggression, cancers, death, heart disease, depression, HIV, liver/kindey carcinomas, tendon damage, diabetes, hormone dependancy disorder

9 of 9

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sports Science resources:

See all Sports Science resources »See all Extreme Physiology resources »