- Created by: Iqra97
- Created on: 04-11-15 17:36
'An individual has complete free choice'
Agree - Predestination does not rule out free-will. God may have determined the future but the choices that we make are still very real choices. There is a predestined result of misusing our free-will but the free-will itself is unchallenged. This could be a way to view 'the fall'. Adam and Eve were given the real choice of whether to eat from the forbidden tree but if they did, then the punishment had already been decided. This does not take away free-will, but says what the punishment will be if free-will is misused.
Disagree - On the other hand predestination does is fact rule out free-will, as for God to be in total charge then nothing can happen without God's power or knowledge. Therefore, any act which may be considered to be free cannot be free in any way, shape or form. Furthermore, the argument regarding Adam and Eve, as the fact that the punishment had already been decided was made necessary by the fact that God knew that, they had no real choice. God had determined what they would decide.
Agree - Kant belived that humans have free-will. He accepts that empirical or physical phenomena come from determining causes. But the human mind is different. Kant said that the mind is not physical and is therefore not determined. Our mind can start an event which has not been caused by something else. So humans do have free choice because the mind can initiate something completely freely as the mind is free from the outside influences.
Disagree - Ted Honderich said that the conept of free-will is meaningless. He said that we are determined in every way, including our mind. The mind and the rest of the body are not seperate as physical brain activity is needed by the mind. In this sense he was in agreement with the view of Strawson. Strawson in 1986said that free-will is incoherrant as a concept, as we must get to a point where something began a chain of events. With complete free-will we would be saying that nothing caused a choice. But how can a choice or a mental state come from nothing? As many philosophers have said 'nothing can come from nothing'. Therefore, humans cannot have free choice as it does not work as a concept
Agree - Science today can accept that the universe is more random than it once thought to be. If this is the case then it means the future is not wholly determined, leaving room for free-will. Also in the psychological field some studies show us that a positive mental attitude, chosen of one's own free-will, can help patients cope with and overcome some pain and illness. Suggesting that the individual has complete choice over their attitude which does have a knock-on effect to a condition that may have seemed determined.
Disagree - Scientific and psychological studies show us that we can predict and control behaviour. Psychological studies have shown that free-choice is certainly not complete as we can control behaviour through classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Human behaviour is therefore not free as it is predictable.