Number of moles, mass and Mr.
n = M / Mr
Number of moles = mass of substance / molecular mass of substance.
n = CV/1000
Number of moles = (concerntration * volume) / 1000
Conc. in mol per dm^3
Vol. in cm^3
Ideal Gas Equation
PV = nRT
Pressure * Volume = Number of moles * Gas constant * Temperature
Press. in Pa
Vol. in M^3
Gas con. 8.31JK^-1mol^-1
Temp. in kelvin (temp in °C add 273)
Atom Economy and % Yield
The atom economy of a chemical reaction is a measure of the amount of starting materials that become useful products.
% atom economy = (Mass of desired product / Total mass of reactants) * 100
In practice, it is not always possible to get the calculated amount of product in a reaction:
- reversible reactions may not go to completion
- some product may be lost when it is removed from the reaction mixture
- some of the reactants may react in an unexpected way
The yield of a reaction is the actual mass of product obtained.
% Yield = (Actual mass of product / theoretical mass of product) * 100