The Party Renewal Thesis 1
Party Identification: Split ticket voting ONLY 9% of the ballot. 37% identify as Democrat & 37% identify as Republican.
Superdelegates: nominated by senior party officials. This means the party takes a more active role in nomination of candidates.
Legal Rulings: Cousins v Wigoda said that state courts cannot interfere with the national parties rights to decide who is seated at national conventions.
Pro-active leadership: The National Committees are far more active in campaign strategies.
Federal Election Campaign Act: allowance of local and state parties to spend on 'party building' and 'get out the vote' activities which blurred boundaries on campaign work.
Soft money: contributions from individuals increase the importance of party structure.
The Party Renewal Thesis 2
Polarisation: parties have assumed increasingly different and polarised ideological identities.
Partisanship in Congress: voting along party lines in congress despite the lack of strong 'whips'. in 1993 2/3 of votes were along party.
The Party Decline Thesis 1
Nomination: Primaries help maverick candidates and encourage them to create personal profiles. Therefore the parties have less control over who is elected.
Campaigning: Once nomination is confirmed, candidates tend to rely on their own personal apparatus.
Fundraising: Candidates get more money from PACS and individuals.
Communication: Fewer meetings are held which means inviduals make executive decisions. Rado and television present unmediated messages. The communication is only one way.
Mobilisation: Interest groups and organisations promote 'get out the vote' activities to promote their own views.
Integration, cohesion and party unity: too many political factions in parties. control of cogress and executive office do not allways mean agreement.
The Party Decline Thesis 2
Policy Development: most often, policy is developed by interest groups or think tanks.
Party Identification: partisan dealignment. rise of independents to 35% in 1998. rise in split ticket voting during 1980s to 27%