America - The Race Issue

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  • Created by: Lulu
  • Created on: 18-03-13 16:30

1920

  • Wall Street Crash - 1929
    • Blacks could not get jobs, therefore making it hard to pay for food, houses or bills

(http://www.arabianmoney.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Wall-Street-Crash.jpg)

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1930

  • Literacy Tests
    • Prevented blacks from voting
    • Asked impossible questions
    • Whites didn't want black to vote
      • They didn't want fairer rules
  • Living Conditions
    • Blacks denied jobs in the south, migrated north
    • Had low pay jobs
    • Lived in poorest houseing with highest rents
  • Improvements
    • Famous jazz artists often black
      • Louis Armstrong
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1930

Alphabet Agencies

  • Eg - PWA, FERA,TVA, CCC, AAA
  • Some had a positve, others had a negative effect
  • +ve- funds for black hospials, local blacks employed, aid to black families
  • -ve- refused to hire blacks, grew too many crops, paid blacks lower wages

(http://historyrat.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/farm_aid_rally1.jpg)

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1940

TURNING POINT

  • WW2 Over 1 million black Americans signed up for US forces
  • Blacks were
    • Only allowed in black units
    • Until 1944 not allowed in combat
    • [Nurses] only allowed to treat blacks
  • 1944 - Blacks allowed in combat, hundreds of black officers in the army and marines
  • Black soldiers assigned most dangerous jobs
  • Worst in the navy
  • Black army workers struggled to get a job
  • Government ordered end to all racial discrimination in the army by February 1946(http://secure2.gop.com/images/uploads/acm01.jpg)
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1950

  • Brown vs Topeka 
    • Linda Brown had to walk for an 1hour each way to the local black school, crossing dangerous train tracks, when there was a white school just a block away
    • September 1952 - NAACP brought out court case against board of education Topeka
    • Warren stated that segregated schools could not be equal, as it creates a feeling if inferiority
    • Pattern made - campainers to use a individual story of discrimination at the Supreme court.
    • Declared illegal
  • Little Rock, Arkansas
    • After Brown vs Topeka, 9 blacks enrolled
    • 3.Sep 1956 State govenor got national guardsmen to block entrance
    • President orded him to remove them 4.Sep blacks were sent home at lunch
    • President ordered federal troops to protect them for the whole year
    • Made America look awful and weak through media
    • Turned some white American's views on civil rights 
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1950

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • 1.Dec 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white person on the bus
    • 5.Dec 1955 (Monday) - Rosa's trial - bus boycott
    • Martin Luther King's first involvement in civil rights
    • 20,000 people joined the Monday boycott
    • Boycott continued
      • Buses lost money - blacks started walking daily
    • Bus segregation proved illegal Nov. 1956
    • Boycott ends Dec. 1956

(http://civilrightsteaching.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/boycott-header-image.png)

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1960

  • James Meredith
    • June 1962 supreme court ordered Mississippi University to accept Meredith
    • President sent in 320 federal marshals
    • 2 people killed, 166 marshals and 210 demonstrators wounded
  • Sit ins
    • 1. Feb 1960 - 4 black students wanted to be served at white lunch bar. They were refused and sat in
    • 2. Feb - 27 other students joined  
    • 3. Feb - Another 80 joined
    • August 1961 - Sit ins had attracted over 70,000 participants. This resulted in over 3,000 arrests
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1960

Freedom Rides

  • Groups ivolved - CORE, SNCC, SCLC
  • Aim: to challenge racism. A group of blacks travelled by bus from Washington DC to New Orleans
    • Annison - Bus firebombed, riders attacked
    • Birmingham - Riders attacked by mobs
  • Ended racial segregation in bus terminals

(http://www.core-online.org/historyphotos/burning_bus.gif)

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