BATTLE OF NEW YORK, August 27-29 1776
- General Howe with 32,000 troops and 400 ships encricling the captured state of New York
- Washington with 10,000 troops and 5,000 reinforcements
- Fought in long island
- Washington planned heavy damage on stationed British troops
- Americans focused on this smaller attack, the main force of the British army attacked from the east.
- Rather than losing his entire army to the British, Washington ordered the army to retreat to Brooklyn Heights. (SUFFERED 6X/2000 LOSSES OF THE BRITISH)
- Instead of finishing off the Americans, the British leaders halted; didn't want to needlessly sacrifice troops. (SURPRISE DEFEAT)
- On the night of August 29, Washington made a desperate attempt to save his army to Manhattan
BATTLE OF TRENTON, DECEMBER 25 1776
- On XMAS as paid militia would be on leave the day after
- 2,400 of Washington's men against the combined British and Hessian troops
- 90% of forces left due to low morale
- intended to raise low morale and revitalise the colonial army.
- Using a guerilla tactic of two sided attack with another general.
- Surprise attack made overpowering British easier, and they eventually surrendered
- 22 dead, 1,100 captured.
- British were shocked at the ease of defeat
BATTLE OF PRINCETON, JANUARY 3 1777
- Progressed quickly after win at Trenton
- Many troops had expired enlistments, but Washington promised bounty to convince them to stay.
- With 6,000 men, they go to encircle Cornwallis
- Recieved advice on British plans, and sent militia to harasss them as he formed strategy
- Left small force that Cornwallis saw as full force while he went towards British unit.
- Mercer's forces unexpectedly overtaken, Caldawalder sent as backup
- Washington instructed deserters to fall in line.
- British eventually fell back and ran
- British loss = 100-300 men
- Colonial loss = 25-30
Most important for psychological effect and cause of hope, belief of a win possible.
BATTLE OF BRANDYWINE CREEK SEPTEMBER 9-11 1777
- New colonial capital after congress returned there after Princeton.
- Howe set sights on Philadelhia with 15,000 men
Sept 9-Washington places men on river to protect fords and fight in advantageous positions
- Washington unsure of British movements, so left the river unguarded.
- Consequently,Americans are unable to defend their position
- Deafeated mericans retreated
- contributed loss to "poor reconnaissance"
- no action for 2 weeks
- supplies moved and troops fell from 15k to 6k
BATTLE OF SARATOGA, OCTOBER 17 1777
- Burgoyne fought against 2 sides. 1- defeated and later forced to retreat
- September 19
- British attempted to isolate New England( (where they had loyalist support)
- General Gates fought at Freemans Farm and Britain triumph in occupying grounds
- Burgoyne sends for reinforcements as he needs supplies and has underestimated enemy and terrain
- HOWE- chooses to attack Philly instead
- CLINTON- delaying leaving Canada (200km away)
- October 7 -Renewed attack at Bemis Heights (lost 200 men and surrounded by 18k)
- Burgoyne making terms of surrender
- Troops POW until 1783
- Howe resigns
- France and Spain enter
- december- peace commission and war ending negotiations
19 December1777 - 19 June1778
- Valley Forge winter. Colonial army discouraged and diseased and at a low point.
- Von Steuben organised troops
- Turned from men to an army capable of winning
- France and Spain join
- Crucial for support as they give aid and naval support and army support, from hatred of Britain and colonial interests (Rochambeau and Lafayette @ Yorktown)
- Batlle of Newport Btrish strategic vicory
- Battle of Georgia British Victory
- War in the South(Charleston,South Carolina+ Savannah, Georgia in 1779 )
- (New England loyalist support
- LD Proclamation hoped for slave numbers) British Victory
BATTLE OF YORKTOWN, 19 OCTOBER 1781
- The Battle of Yorktown was the last great battle of the American Revolutionary War. It is where the British Army surrendered and the British government began to consider a peace treaty.
- General Nathanael Greene had taken over command of the American Continental Army in the South.the war in the South had not been going very well, but Greene enabled victories and the British retreat to the East Coast.
- At the same time that the British Army under General Charles Cornwallis was retreating to Yorktown, General George Washington was marching his army down from the north. The French Navy, having defeated the British Navy, started to move to the coast near Yorktown as well.
- The British Army was now surrounded at Yorktown. They were greatly outnumbered. For eleven days the American forces bombarded the British. Finally Cornwallis sent out the white flag for surrender.
- When the American troops started to prepare for another attack, Cornwallis agreed to Washington's terms and the battle was over.
- On October 19, 1781 General Cornwallis signed the British surrender. The document was called the Articles of Capitulation.
- Around 8,000 British troops surrendered in Yorktown. This opened the door for the Treaty of Paris.
POST WAR- ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Articles of Confederation (created by congress)-gains independence and essentially function as 13 separate states.
- no sense of nationality/Americaness
- actions to remove all traces of British 'tyrannical rule'
- important measures needed 9 or more states approval
- freedom of movement in colonies
- provided for fugitives' extradtidion
- can delcare war( but states must agree and supply troops)
- Congress has no money and no means to collect it (can't levy taxes)
- AoC can't be amended without 13 states
- can't levy taxes, regulate trade, cretae currency, enfore requisitions,
- 1 vote per state
laws that must be followed nationwide
decided by the individual states
IMPACT OF WAR ON SOCIETY
- 20,000 loyalists resettled in West Indies
- LD Proclamation- were absorbed into British Army
- 3000 given land and freedon in Nova Scotia
- 1771- Mass banned slave trade
- 1790- 60,000 freed
- Liberalised Manumission Laws
- whites determined to maintain slavery- 90% remained enslaved in south
- gradual abolition made to benefit owners
- 1790-1807- more slaves improted that at any other time
- War was a achance to exercise control anad freedom and lose 'ignorance'
- 20,000 served in army on ancillary capacity
- Endured harship (****, widowing) to return to traditional domesticity
- no franchise
- Strengthened southwestern NA tribes in oppostion to theAmerican expansion to the west
- 1784- Natchez seized and Mississipi rver closed off (essential for trade and movement)
- 1786- Foreign Secretary got forced acceptance for limited market access and Spain with 25 year access to river. (5 states opposed)
- January 1787
- Massachusetts farmer who'd fought in continental army built rebellion due to lack of wages and bankruptcy
- Paper money rejected while taxed paid in rare currency
- Hundreds lead to courthosues and government buildings to distrupt Nand be heard
- Scared Conservatives and brought fears of anarchy.
- Gave impetus to idea of strenghtening government power
Virginia and Maryland
- Dispute over use of the Potomac, Congress doesnt have authority so powerless to act
- James Madison advocates for independent resolution at Mount Vernon
- Madison was key in inspring greater unity and co operation and ideas of reforming failing AoC
- September 1786
- 12 men representing NY, NJ, PEN, DEL, VIR, meet to discuss commerical problems and agree on need for constitutional change
- couldn't propose reforms with credibility
- Instead plan Philly Con to redraw the entire AoC in May
PHILADEPHIA CONVENTION, MAY 1787
- 55 Delegates (from all states -Rhode Island) met to address problems and rpovide a redraft of the AoC, agreeing of centralised governemtn but not monopolisng power
- heavily influenced by Madison's 'Virgina Plan'
- DISAGREED OVER
- extent of centralisation
- uni or bicameral housed system/ proportional or equal representation
- the slave issue
- VIRGINIA PLAN (south)
- Slaves in population but not taxed as people. Proportional rep (25=25), Upper house nominated from Lower House
- NEW JERSEY PLAN (north)
- Slaves in taxed population (as property) but not counted in population
- 1 seat, 1 house per state
SHERMAN'S COMPROMISE - 3 branched government. Bicameral and proportionate system. Congressmen on 2 year terms. Senators, 2 per state on 6 year terms.
3/5 COMPROMISE- Slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a person for population and taxation
SEPARATION OF POWER
JUDICIARY- Supreme Court (job for life)
- Independent branch
- Appointed by Pres with Senate approval
EXECUTIVE -Congress, House of Reps, Senate
- House elected by voters on 2 years
- Senate, 2 members from each state on 6 year terms
- Levy/raise taxes and Declare war
- Ratify treaties
- Impeach and Override Pres veto
LEGISLATIVE- Pres, VP, Cabinet
- Elected by College on 4 year term (2x max)
- Conclude treaties and Sign in laws
- In favour of Constitution and viewed it as they had commercial interest and wanted trade regulated.
- Rich people in need of protection from widening democracy
- Power remains with the people
- Beleived situation to be worse now
- People suspicious of centralised goverment, and against taxation
- Fear of Northern base
- Aristocracy/Intervention/Lack of Religion/Immigration
- Washington - believed it was best possible outcome
- The People- made source of authority, trusted Washington
- States- reconciled conflicts and open to interpretation
- Electorcal College- stands between people and president
- Consitition- too general and unlcear on interpretation
- Supreme Court- too much power
WASHINTON'S PRESIDENCY APRIL 1789-1797
- Acted as army general that bought colonial army victory in 1781, Yorktown
- Virginian slaveowner, united south and north
- Burgess background in Virrgina
- Opposed taxes
- Former British soldier
- Agreed to presidency to unite colonies
PROBLEMS TO COMBAT
- System of Gov't - untested constitution, no judiciary department, divided states, Rhode Island and NC not signed
- Security- no army/navy, Spain and Britain occupy land, NA tsking extra Western board land
- Economy- no tax-raising method, ruined economy and money
- June 1788- Accession was the admission into the 'Perpetual Union' of the states, and allowed States to join in. Beginning with Rhode Island and North Carolina, Vermont, Kentucky,and Tennessee on equal footing with pre-existing states.
FOREIGN POLICY & NEUTRALITY
- 1794- Washington decided to be neutral on French revolution so as not to risk war with Britain as *relations were strained *army was weak.
- 1794- Jay (foreign sec) sent to London to negotiate settlement. was successful in getting terms as Britain was unco-operative. seen as a 'pact with the devil'
- Britain to evacuate northern ports AND american trade open to west indies
- RETURN * French not welcome*Favoured nation status
NATIVE AMERICAN POLICY
- 1793- Washington viewed it as a high priority to integrate NA into homelands to live separately and eventually assimilate
- Issued proclamation forbidding encroachment
- Georgia and other states ignore and sell 15m worth to spectators
- Northern settlers move in (Federalist policy)
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
1789 JUDICIARY ACT
- Established hierachical system of federal courts.
- Top was Supreme Court of Chief Justice and 5 Assosciates. Each state would have a district and appeal court circuits
- Ensured rights and laws are adjucated uniformly, with SC ruling on the constitution
- Pres chose all 6 members (Washington chose 3 northen and 3 southern)
- Earned right to govern, and wasn't dictatorial as feared
- Weekly open housed reception to show formality and simplicity.
- Highlighted precedence of Pres, and chose a simple title of Mr. President
1791 BILL OF RIGHTS
- Drafted by James Madison, 17 adopted by The House, while states ratified 10
- A set of Constitutional Amendments to determine rights of individual, as promised by Federalists *right to bear arms/petition *freedom of religion/speech *prohibited excessive bail
HAMILTON'S REPORTS- Washington heavily sided with H on legislature, creating divison and leaning to politcal party divide
- bank report
- bank with 10m capital. 1/5 goverment 4/5 private shareholders
- act as gv't depository and facilitate tax collection
- Madison (frontier farmers,)felt the Constitution hadn't given this ability, but Congress allowed it and made law in 1791.
- opened in Philly 1791, banknotes maintain value
- hated in south and west
- credit report
- no opposition to paying debts
- domestic northern debt upset south
- Madison and Hamilton disagree
- manufactures report
- Hamilton wanted to encourage clear plan for industrialisation through protection and subsidies.---Congress wasnt ready and was shevled, but tariff plan was passed.
COINAGE ACT 1792
- Creation of US dollar as monetary unit standard and mint where it was to be printed
- Mint tobe situated at government seat
- Merchants and bankers unsure about silver bullion.
- Depositers of silver paid +25 grams for each bullion and every dollar
- Tax on liquor that heavily affected fronier farmers.
- Intended as a tax protest, and was first imposed on domestic products.
THOMAS JEFFERSON--3rd US Pres. Virginian. 1776, Drafted DoI. 1774- Published 'View of Rights'.
SAM ADAMS--Lead Loyal Nine afr 65 Stamp Act. 1772- Committees of Correspondence. 1773- Planned Boston Tea Party. 1774- Oppositon to Coercive Acts
JOHN ADAMS--Signee of DoI. Sat in 1st and 2nd Continental Congress
JOHN LOCKE--British writer who influenced Jefferson. Ideas used in Declaration of Independence
JOHN DICKINSON--Founding Father 1767-68 Penned 12 letters about grievances. Sat in 1st and 2nd Continental Congress. Wrote Olive Branch Petition and Declaration of Necessity of Taking Arms
THOMAS PAYNE--British and Founding Father. 1776 pamphlet Common Sense.highest selling and promoted independence
JAMES MADISON--1780-88 served in Congress. Philly Convention 1787. TheVices of the Political System. urging separation of powers.