· Historical context of theory (e.g. information theory)
· Structure and processes of Levels of Processing and Working Memory Model
· Evidence for the modesl (empirically based research and case studies)
· Evidence against the models (MSM)
· Criticial examination of empirical evidence for and against LoP and WMM
Levels of Processing – Craik and Lockhart (1972)
· Enduring memories occur through processing not rehearsal
· Memory is a biproduct of processing
· Primary memory is the information recirculated with low levels of processing
· Shallow processing – analysis of visual features – is it printed in capitals?
· Phonemic processing – analysis of sounds – does it rhyme with?
· Deeper processing – analysis of semantics – is it?
· Mandler (1967) organising items causes deeper processing so improves recall
· Palmere et al (1983) elaborating information causes deeper processing so improves recall
· Morris et al (1977) the processing has to be relevant to what we are trying to remember to improve recall, this is transfer appropriate processing
· Definition for LoP is circular, processing is memory or is memory processing?
· Heavy focus on LTM, no focus on STM
Working Model Memory – Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
· Central executive – directs attention to slave systems and has no storage capacity
· Phonological loop – deals with auditory information
· Baddeley (1986) further divided this into the phonological store and the phonological articulatory, one to hold, one to loop sounds in the STM
· Visuo-spatial sketchpad – temporary visual store, used for spatial planning
· Logie (1995) divided this into the scribe and cache
· Episodic buffer added by Baddeley in 2000, is a general store with limited capacity that integrates information
· Baddeley et al (1975) VSSP is separate to the PL as it is hard to track light and describe angles – dual performance tasks
· Dolcos et al (2007) fMRI shows different areas are active when performing tasks using different slave systems
· Shallice and Warrington (1970) amnesiacs VSSP is better than their PL showing separate stores
· Only explains STM
· Describes but doesn’t explain how they work
· Eslinger and Domasio (1985) the central executive is not one system, it is better conceptualised as many areas of the brain