Alternatives to the Multistore Model


Mark Scheme


·         Historical context of theory (e.g. information theory)

·         Structure and processes of Levels of Processing and Working Memory Model


·         Evidence for the modesl (empirically based research and case studies)

·         Evidence against the models (MSM)

·         Criticial examination of empirical evidence for and against LoP and WMM

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Levels of Processing – Craik and Lockhart (1972)

·         Enduring memories occur through processing not rehearsal

·         Memory is a biproduct of processing

·         Primary memory is the information recirculated with low levels of processing

·         Shallow processing – analysis of visual features – is it printed in capitals?

·         Phonemic processing – analysis of sounds – does it rhyme with?

·         Deeper processing – analysis of semantics – is it?

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LoP evaluation

·         Mandler (1967) organising items causes deeper processing so improves recall

·         Palmere et al (1983) elaborating information causes deeper processing so improves recall

·         Morris et al (1977) the processing has to be relevant to what we are trying to remember to improve recall, this is transfer appropriate processing

·         Definition for LoP is circular, processing is memory or is memory processing?

·         Heavy focus on LTM, no focus on STM

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Working Model Memory – Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

·         Central executive – directs attention to slave systems and has no storage capacity


·         Phonological loop – deals with auditory information

·         Baddeley (1986) further divided this into the phonological store and the phonological articulatory, one to hold, one to loop sounds in the STM

·         Visuo-spatial sketchpad – temporary visual store, used for spatial planning

·         Logie (1995) divided this into the scribe and cache

·         Episodic buffer added by Baddeley in 2000, is a general store with limited capacity that integrates information

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WMM evaluation

·         Baddeley et al (1975) VSSP is separate to the PL as it is hard to track light and describe angles – dual performance tasks

·         Dolcos et al (2007) fMRI shows different areas are active when performing tasks using different slave systems

·         Shallice and Warrington (1970) amnesiacs VSSP is better than their PL showing separate stores

·         Only explains STM

·         Describes but doesn’t explain how they work

·         Eslinger and Domasio (1985) the central executive is not one system, it is better conceptualised as many areas of the brain

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