- Alkenes are unsaturated molecules (they consist of c=c double bonds).
- The name of the first three alkenes are: Ethene, Propene, Butene,
- They have a general ormular of CnH2n
e-but-2-ene <-- this is when the hydrogens attached to the carbon on either end of the double bonded carbon are on OPPOSITE sides of the molecule.
z-but-2-ene <-- this is when the hudrogens attached to the carbon on either ond of the double bonded carbon are on the SAME side of the molecule.
Compounds that have the same sturcutal formular but the bonds are arranged differently in the space.
In this, the unsaturated alkenes become saturated. in other words the c=c double bonds get broken into c-c single bonds.
Electrophillic- electron rich! c=c are electron rich and so attract posotive atoms (electrophils)
Addition - forms one new molecule!
This can be done by using:
- Hydrogen Bromide HBr
- Sulphuric Acid H2SO4
- Bromine, Br2
form bromoalkanes.. This is the MECHANISM forming 2methyl-2-bromopropane A posotive carbon is the CARBOCATION!
forms a alkyl hydrogensulphate...
Produces in this case ethyl hydrogensulphate.
when H2O(warmed) is added to this is produces ethanol and H2SO4 again.
Produces a dibromoalkane...
The originally brown bromine solution will now turn colourless as the unsaturated alkene is now saturated, has been made into in this case dibromoethane.
Major and Minor Product...
Primary Carbocation: has one alkyl group attached to C+ (LEAST STABLE carbocation)
Secondary Carbocation: has 2 alkyl groups attached to the C+
Tirtiery Carbocation: has 3 alkyl groups attached to the C+ (MOST STABLE carbocation)
Major Product is formed via the MOST STABLE carbocation
Minor Product is formed via the LEAST STABLE carbocation.
Ethene + H20 (300*C, 6.5x10^3kPa)-------> Ethanol
There is a presence of Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
- General formular... CnH2n+1(OH)
- all contain a HYDROXYL
- first two alcohols are: Methanol, Ethanol
- Alcohols - end in, -ol or Hydroxyl- always have an OH attached i.e. ETHANOL and HYDROXY PROPANOIC ACID.
- Aldehyde - end in -al, always have a double bonded oxygen =o attached and a hydrogen h- i.e ETHANAL
- Ketones - end in -one or oxo- have a double bonded oxygen only arrached o= i.e. PROPANONE and OXOBUTANOIC ACID
- Carboxylic Acid, end in -oic acid, always have a double bonded oxygen o= and an OH group on the end. i.e. ETHANOIC ACID
- 1 atmosphoric pressure
- No oxygen
- Yheast ENZYME NATURAL CATALYST
- Batch Process
- Impure product
- more for drinking
- Ethanol produced
- c6h12o6 ------> 2c2h5oh + 2co2
- 6.5X10^3 kPa
- phosphoric acid is catalyst
- more insustrial uses
- ethanol produced
- much pruer product
- c6h12o6 + h2o----> c2h5oh
- Continious process