Alkane, Alkene and Polymer

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What is a Hydrocarbon?

A hydrocarbon is a compound made up of Hydrogen and Carbon atoms only.

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Fractional Distillation

1. The crude oil is heated using a Bunsen Burner 

2. Different fractions have different boiling point so the fraction with the lowest boiling point starts to boil

3. It quickly turns into a gas and rises up the collum passing into the condenser 

The condenser is cold as it is inside a jacket containing running cold water

4. The fraction cools and condenses into a liquid and drips into the conical flask which is then removed 

Its not untill the whole fraction is removed that the next fraction will start to boil. 

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Industrial Distillation

  • Crude oil is heated so that is vapourises and then enters the bottom of the fractional tower
  • The tower is hotter at the bottom and cooler at the top
  • The different fractions have different boiling points
  • The heavier fractions sink to the bottom of the tower where they condense and are removed
  • The smaller fractions rise further up the tower before they condense and are then removed 
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Whats an Alkane?

Alkanes are hydrocarbons that contain single bonds between the carbon atoms. 

  Methane                    Ethane                  Propane                    Butane 

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Whats an Alkene?

Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain a double bond between two carbon atoms

    Ethene                     Propene

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Whats a Polymer?

The scientific name for a plastic

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Whats a Monomer?

The name given to the starting material used to make plastic 

Example: ethen is the monomer used to make the pastic polythene 

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Whats polymerisation?

The name given to the reaction used to make polymers.

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Whats a Thermoplastic?

A thermoplastic softens easily when heated and can be remoulded into a new shape. 

The chains in thermoplastics are like spagetti they are not attacked to eachother.

There are weak forces between the separate polymer chains

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Whats a Thermosetting Plastic?

A thermosetting plastic does not soften when heated. If you heat them strongly enough, they eventually break down and char. They are hard and rigid

Thermosetting plastics have their chains joined. This makes them much stronger so they withstand heat and cannot be remoulded 

Strong forces between bonds because they are fixed together

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