alcohols,carboxylic acids and esters



Alcohols are a group of compouds that contain an OH bond (an oxygen atom convently bonded to a hydrogen atom). OH group is an example of a functional group - a group of atoms responsible for the chemial properties of the compound. all alcohols act in similar ways.

the nameing system for alcohols is the same as alkanesonly instead of the -ane it's -anol. The first part of the name depends on the amount of carbons their are 1= meth 2=eth 3=prop 4=but (Monkeys Eat Pealed Bannanas)

The fromula of an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH   eg C2H5OH (ethanol)

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properties and uses of alcohols


  • alcohols are flammable. they producing carbon dioxide and water.
  • alcohols react with sodium to from hydrogen and alkoxides
  • (only the first 3) can completely dissolve in water to from a neutral solution


  • ethanol is in alcholic drinks
  • as solvents as methanol, ethanol and propanol can all dissolve in subantces that water can't it is useful in the solvents industry eg perfumes and aftershave
  • used to can thing clean and sterial using alcohol wipes
  • can be used as fuel
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carboxylic acids

carboxylic acids are a group of compounds that contain a -COOH (a carbon atom which a double bound to an oxygen atom and a single bond to another oxygen atom that is bonded to a hydrogen atom) functional group. in its sybol from you can tell if it is a carboxylic acid as there will be 2 oxygen atoms.

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the name of all carboxylic acids end in -anoic acid.

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properties and uses of carboxylic acids


  • carboxylic acids react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide and a salt ending in -anoate
  • they can dissolve in water to form an acidic solution as it releases H+ ions which are responsable for making the solution acidic


  • long chained carboxylic acids are used to creat soaps and detergents
  • ethanoic acid is in vinegar
  • carboxylic acid is in citric acid in some fruits 
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esters have a function group of -COO- a carbon atom that has a double bond with an oxygen atom and a single bond to another oxygen atom. esters form when an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react together with a by product of water.

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all esters end in -oate. the first part of the name comes from the alcohol. and the secound from the carboxylic acid.

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properties and uses of esters


  • esters have a pleasant smell often sweet and fruity
  • they are flammable
  • esters don't mix well with water
  • they do mixes with alcohols
  • esters are toxic to humans


  • esters are used in perfumes due to there aromas
  • they are solvents for paint,ink and glue
  • esters are in nail varnish remover
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