- Homologous series -OH
- All end in 'ol'
1. methanol 2. ethanol 3. propanol <-- dissolve completely in water, neutral solutions
- Flammable- burn in air --> water + carbon dioxide
- React with sodium --> alkoxide + hydrogen e.g. ethanol --> ethoxide + hydrogen
- Ethanol - alcoholic drinks, damages the liver and brain
- Used as:
-very useful as solvents (dissolves substances water cannot)
-methylated spirit --> ethanol with chemicals added, very poisonous
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- Homologous series - COOH
- End in 'anoic'
- 1. methanoic 2. ethanoic 3. propanoic
- React like any other carbonates --> produce salt + water + carbon dioxide
- The salts formed end in 'anoate'
- Dissolve in water --> weak acidic solutions, partially ionised so an acid of the same concentration may have a more acidic pH
- Ethanoic acid is oxidised ethanol (dissolved in water makes vinegar), preserving foods etc
- Citric acid- oranges and lemons, lots produced- production of fizzy drinks and get rid of scale
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- Homologous series -COO-
- End in 'yl' and then 'anoate'
- Alcohol + carboxylic acid --> ester + water
- An acid catalyst is usually used such as sulfuric acid
1. Ethyl Ethanoate
Ethanol + Ethanoic Acid --> Ethyl Ethanoate + Water
- The alcohol is the 'yl', the carboxylic acid is the 'anoate'
- Properties and Uses:
-smelly & fruity
-volatile (evaporate easily) & flammable (dangerous)
-nail varnish remover
- Fumes can irritate mucus membranes and they're toxic --> health issues
- However, they're not as volatile or as toxic as some organic solvents and esters have actually replaced some of these
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