Alcohols

Shows the different groups that an alcohol can be made into

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  • Created by: a
  • Created on: 25-01-11 10:12

Alcohol--->aldehyde

For primary alcohols (= -OH group is attached to a carbon which is attached to only 1 other carbon)

OXIDATION with:

  • Potassium dichromate
  • Acid (H+)
  • Distillation

REDUCTION with:

  • NaBH^4
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Aldehyde--->carboxylic acid

OXIDATION with:

  • Potassium dichromate
  • acids (H+)
  • heat under reflux

(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR4mBI_zj_SNeA67_1LiDDG86k_Ivs3awiK4_AkWjIYCtRQ19efrQ)aldehyde

(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSYDFW7eO980D_MUiBDGJMNUZKUU-_8_sgipGtdeED1CL1I1D74)carboxylic acid

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Carboxylic acid--->ester

REAGENTS:

  • Alcohol
  • Sulfuric acid - H^2SO^4
  • Catalyst

CONDITIONS:

  • heat under reflux

(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSlX0mQ1_DdSG62kGAHE05ik0XnFbuvz4mett31nHzw2OqftNXd)ester

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Ester--->carboxylic acid

ACID HYDROLYSIS

  • H2O
  • Acid (H+)
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Ester--->carboxylate + alcohol

ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

  • -OH
  • H+

carboxylate

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Alcohol--->ketone

For secondary alcohols (= -OH group is attached to a carbon which is attached to 2 other carbons)

OXIDATION with:

  • Potassium dichromate
  • Acid (H+)
  • Distillation

REDUCTION with:

  • NaBH^4             

     (http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQDQTbYo8yCnJWBjSRIlXAsVpeZS1ZM3VmOWMdmiR4UEGx8gOXJ)ketone

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Alcohol--->halogenoalkane

Hydrolysis

REAGENTS:

  • NaOH                           
  • H2O

CONDITIONS

  • heat under reflux

 

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Halogenoalkane--->amine

REAGENTS:

  • NH3
  • Ethanol

(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRP_4izyfnP6KEubHc9yzS8aENsKKAMfFXVQbHWE1yUkg2BVN4v1rotm4JI)amine

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