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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 27-04-14 20:28

Alcohol types and testing for them


so the type coordinates with the amount of carbon groups that the main carbon (which is also attached to the hydroxide) is attached too e.g. primary alcohol attached to a carbon with one carbon.

  • Primary and Secondary alcohols +potassium dichromate = colour change from orange to green.
  • Tertiary alcohol + potassium dichromate = no colour change.
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Forming Alcohols- from Glucose



37 degree celcius

yeast (producing zymase)

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Forming Alcohols- from Alkenes



very high temperatures- 300°C

very high pressures- 70atm

Phosphoric/sulfuric acid catalyst (H3PO4)

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Forming Alcohols- from Halogenoalkanes

Nucleophilic Subsitution


reflux heating

with aqueous NaOH

Carbon atom attached to the halogen is slightly positive, attracting the OH- ion. Halogen-carbon bond breaks heterolytically, and the OH- replaces the halogen. A alcohol and a halide with lone pair are produced.

The reverse can also happen, making a halogenoalkane from an alcohol.

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Making an Ester

esterification needs:

H2SO4- sulfuric acid


carboxylic acid


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Making a Ketone

Made from secondary alcohols


Potassium Dichromate (which turns green if oxidation occurs)

H+ ions (acid)


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Making aldehydes

Made from primary alcohols


potassium dichromate

H+ ions (acid)



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Carboxylic Acids from Aldehydes


Potassium Dichromate

H+ ions (acid)

reflux of temperature


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Esters from Carboxylic Acids



an alcohol

( >>>(

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Alkanes to Alkenes and vice versa

Alkanes to Alkenes

Cracking is either:

  • radical- 200 degrees celcius, and high pressure
  • catalytic- using a titanium based catalyst

Is is a very endothermic reaction

Alkenes to Alkanes

Hyrdogenation needs:

a nickel catalyst, 150 degree celcius and hydrogen.

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Alkenes/Alkanes to Halogenalkanes

Alkenes to Halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition using Hydrogen Halides e.g. HBr HCl

Alkanes to Halogenalkanes

Free radical subsitution needs:

  • U.V light or very high temperatures
  • Halogen e.g. Cl2 Br2
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Alkenes to Polyalkenes

Addition polymerisation can be done in two different ways:

  • Radical polymerisation:

Needs high temperatures (200celcius) and pressures. Produces a mixture of polymers and many branched ones.

  • Catalytic polymerisation a.k.a Zeigler-Natta process

Titanium catalyst and 60celcius. Allows unreacted alkenes to be easily recycled into the process.

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