Alcohols

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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 27-04-14 20:28

Alcohol types and testing for them

(http://masterorganicchemistry.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/3-alcohols.jpg)

so the type coordinates with the amount of carbon groups that the main carbon (which is also attached to the hydroxide) is attached too e.g. primary alcohol attached to a carbon with one carbon.

  • Primary and Secondary alcohols +potassium dichromate = colour change from orange to green.
  • Tertiary alcohol + potassium dichromate = no colour change.
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Forming Alcohols- from Glucose

Glucose

needs:

37 degree celcius

yeast (producing zymase)

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Forming Alcohols- from Alkenes

Hydration

needs:

very high temperatures- 300°C

very high pressures- 70atm

Phosphoric/sulfuric acid catalyst (H3PO4)

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Forming Alcohols- from Halogenoalkanes

Nucleophilic Subsitution

needs:

reflux heating

with aqueous NaOH

Carbon atom attached to the halogen is slightly positive, attracting the OH- ion. Halogen-carbon bond breaks heterolytically, and the OH- replaces the halogen. A alcohol and a halide with lone pair are produced.

The reverse can also happen, making a halogenoalkane from an alcohol.

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Making an Ester

esterification needs:

H2SO4- sulfuric acid

heat

carboxylic acid

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Ester-fr.svg/200px-Ester-fr.svg.png)

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Making a Ketone

Made from secondary alcohols

needs:

Potassium Dichromate (which turns green if oxidation occurs)

H+ ions (acid)

(http://www.chemistry-drills.com/icons/2.JPG)

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Making aldehydes

Made from primary alcohols

needs:

potassium dichromate

H+ ions (acid)

NEEDS TO BE DISTILLED TO ISOLATE

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Aldehyde.svg/150px-Aldehyde.svg.png)

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Carboxylic Acids from Aldehydes

Needs:

Potassium Dichromate

H+ ions (acid)

reflux of temperature

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Aldehyde.svg/150px-Aldehyde.svg.png)>>>>>>>(http://www.chemistry-drills.com/icons/3.JPG)

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Esters from Carboxylic Acids

Needs:

H2SO4

an alcohol

(http://www.chemistry-drills.com/icons/3.JPG) >>>(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Ester-fr.svg/200px-Ester-fr.svg.png)

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Alkanes to Alkenes and vice versa

Alkanes to Alkenes

Cracking is either:

  • radical- 200 degrees celcius, and high pressure
  • catalytic- using a titanium based catalyst

Is is a very endothermic reaction

Alkenes to Alkanes

Hyrdogenation needs:

a nickel catalyst, 150 degree celcius and hydrogen.

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Alkenes/Alkanes to Halogenalkanes

Alkenes to Halogenoalkanes

Electrophilic addition using Hydrogen Halides e.g. HBr HCl

Alkanes to Halogenalkanes

Free radical subsitution needs:

  • U.V light or very high temperatures
  • Halogen e.g. Cl2 Br2
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Alkenes to Polyalkenes

Addition polymerisation can be done in two different ways:

  • Radical polymerisation:

Needs high temperatures (200celcius) and pressures. Produces a mixture of polymers and many branched ones.

  • Catalytic polymerisation a.k.a Zeigler-Natta process

Titanium catalyst and 60celcius. Allows unreacted alkenes to be easily recycled into the process.

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