Agri- food geography 3

1980's farm crisis

Crisis had multiple dimentions: - supply of food/commodities/ surplus production

- cost of storage

- international trade tensions

farm level: - social stress

- environmental trade tensions

Governements response: changed approach in agriculture in 3 ways

- policies no longer encouraged food production 

- didn't pay farmers for unwanted food

-farming became less of a priority in the use of rural space.

Era of post-productivism 

1 of 11

'Post productivist transition' PPT- theory

Reveral of previous agricultural trends:

- productivism-----> post productivism 

- intensification-----> extensification 

- concentration-----> dispersion 

-specialisation-----> diversification 

Ilbery and Bowler 1998 

2 of 11

Extensification, Dispersion, Diversification

Extensification- the use of fewer inputs, a move to organic and other forms of environmentally friendly farming, feweer lifestock 

Dispersion- the division of farms or production into smaller units 

Diversification- farms focus less on one food/fibre product and generate income from other activites 

3 of 11

PPT extensification- set aside

Voluntary fro, 1988- got payment, only 2.6% of land in EU set aside

Compulsary from 1992- poorest land was set aside- 12.4% set aside in 2001

Abolished 2009

4 of 11

PPT extensification- set aside

Voluntary fro, 1988- got payment, only 2.6% of land in EU set aside

Compulsary from 1992- poorest land was set aside- 12.4% set aside in 2001

Abolished 2009

5 of 11

PPT extensification- Agri- environment schemes AES

pay farmers directly for environmental management : cumpulsory for all EU  member states from 1992 

Teesdale- woodland, pond and footpath creation, restoration of dry stone walls, conservation of wildlife, birds and plants

Evaluation: AES agreements cover 66% of the agricultural area of England, 58,000 farmers have AES agreement 

doesn't give farmers cultural capital for prestige value- can look scruffy- Burton et al 2008

6 of 11

PPT Diversification

development of non traditional enterprises on the farm- ilbery 1992 

Governemnt suppport: Grant aid, rurual development regulation 1999

types of diversifcation:

-productive diversification- differerent types of animals/ crops 

- structural diversification- turning run down buildings into lets/ offices 

- specific diversification- farm based recreation/ tourism, adds value 

7 of 11

Case study- Value added diversification

Salt marsh lamb production- 15,000 acre estate on Cumbrian coast 

Salt marsh is imprtant for their vegetation- diverse, rare species, grazing preserves the salt marshes as they arent intensively grazed 

living on salt marsh gave them a distinctive taste- sold at a verity of alternative retail outlets at premium prices 

8 of 11

Diversification: nature and extent

Defras survey 2009

51% of farms had diversified 

building lets are most commom- 36% of farms and generates 68% of income 

av. income contribution 15%

9 of 11

post productivism assessment

- some evidence appears weak

- processes are in addition to rather than reversing productivist trends

-agricultural mentalities remain pr production 

-a fundamental restucuring of agrictulure seems questionable

- need alterbnative ways of theorising agri- food change 

10 of 11

2000s agri- food crisis- return of productivism?

  • Food price spike in 2007-8, dramatic increase in certain foods
  • Rising commoditt prices, rising food prices- impact on consumer goods, having dramatic consequences on policy and research e.g. up to 81% price increase on pasta 
  • Emergence of new policy anf academic debate about 'food security' 2009 food futures
  • one strategy for securing food supplies is 'sustainable intensification'- more food produced sustainably 
11 of 11

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all geography resources »